Part 2, Chapter 3 (Cont'd.) (pp. 211-236)
[211:5] Kai palin hotan legê; Elelêsan en cheilesin, ekinêsan kephalon, legontes; Rhysasthô heauton. Atina panta hos gegonen hypo ton Iodaion to Christo, mathein dynasthe. Etaurothentos gar autou, ezestrethon ta cheilê, kai ekeikoun tas kephalas, legontes; Ho nekrous anegeiras rhysastho eauton. Apol. i. 38.
[212:1] Oi gar theorountes auton estauromenon kai kephalas ekastos ekinoun, kai ta cheilê diestrephon, kai tois myzotêrsin en allêlois dierinountes elegon eironeumenoi tauta ha kai en tois ton apostolon autou gegraptai; "Uion theou eauton elege; katabas peripateito; sosato auton ho Theos." Dial. 101.
[212:2] Some writers consider that this is a reference to the Acta Pilati as in Apol., 1:35.
[212:3] Dr. Westcott admits that in the latter passage Justin does profess to give the exact words which were recorded in the Memoirs, and that they are not to be found in our Gospels; "but," he apologetically adds, "we do find these others so closely connected with them that few readers would feel the difference"! This is a specimen of apologetic criticism. Dr. Westcott goes on to say that as no MS. or Father known to him has preserved any reading more closely resembling Justin's, "if it appear not to be deducible from our Gospels, due allowance being made for the object which he had in view, its source must remain concealed" (On theCanon, p. 114 f.). Cf. Matt. 27:39-43; Mark 15: 29-32; Luke 23:34-37.
[212:4] The nearest parallel in our Gospels is in Luke 23:35: "He saved others; let him save himself if this man be the Christ of God, his chosen" (Allous esosen, sosato eauton, k.t.l.).
[212:5] Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 244 f.
[213:1] Semisch argues that both forms are quotations of the same sentence, and that there is consequently a contradiction in the very quotations themselves; but there can be no doubt that the two phrases are distinct parts of the mockery, and the very same separation and variation occur in each of the canonical Gospels. Die ap. Denkw. Mart. Just., p. 282; cf. Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 244.
[213:2] The Cod. Sin. omits auton.
[213:3] Dial. 99.
[213:4] Dial. 98.
[213:5] Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34.
[214:1] Kai phonêsas phonê megalê ho Iêsous eipen, Pater, eis cheiras sou paratithemai to pneuma mou. touto de eipon exepneusen. Luke 23:46.
[214:2] Kai gar apodidous to pneuma epi to stauro, eipe, Pater, eis cheiras sou paratithemai to pneuma mou; hos kai ek ton apomnêmoneumaton kai touto emathon.Dial. 105.
[214:3] Matt. 27:50; Mark 15:37.
[214:4] Kai phonêsas phonê megalê ho Iêsous eipen Patêr, Baddach ephkid rhouel, ho hermêneuetai Eis cheiras sou paratithêm Kai touto eipon paredoke to pneuma. Evang. Nicod., Pars 1. A. sive Gesta Pilati, xi.; Tischendorf, Evang. Apocr., p. 233; cf. Thilo, Cod. Apocr. N. T. p. 590 f.
[214:5] Epeita ho Iêsous kraxas phonê, megalê Pater, eis cheiras sou parathêsomai to pneuma mou, apepneuse. Ev. Nicod., Pars I. B. sive Acta Pilati B., xi.; Tischendorf, Ev. Apocr. p. 287.
[215:1] Et circa horam nonam exclamavit Jesus voce magna dicens: Hely, Hely, lama zabacthani, quod est Deus meus, Deus meus, ut quid dereliquisti me? Et post haec dicit Jesus: Pater in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum. Et haec dicens emisit spiritum." Nicod. Ev., xi.; Fabricius, Cod. An. N. T., i., p. 261; cf. Thilo,Cod. Apocr. N. T., p. 591 f.
[215:2] Oi de Ioudaioi oi histamenoi kai bleptontes kategelon auton kai elegon Ean alêthos eleges hoti uios ei tou theou, katabêthi apo tou staurou, kai pareuthys hina eteroi elegon katagelontes Allous esosen, allous ethera pisteusomen eis peusen, kai iasato astheneis, paralelumenous, leprous, daimonizomenous, typhlous, cholous, nenekronmenous, kai eauton ou dynatai therapeusai. Evang. Nicod., Pars I. B., sive Acta Pilati, B. 10; Tischendorf, Ev. Apocr., p. 286.
[215:3] Ev. Nicod., Pars 1. A. 10; Tischendorf, Ev. Apocr., p. 232; cf. Thilo., Cod. Apocr. N. T., p. 584; Fabricius, Cod. Apocr. N. T., i., p. 259; Tischendorf, ib., p. 340. There are differences between all these texts -- indeed, there are scarcely two MSS. which agree - clearly indicating that we have now nothing but corrupt versions of a more ancient text.
[216:1] Dial. 17.
[216:2] Ib., 108. This passage commences with statements to the same effect as the preceding.
[216:3] Credner, Beiträge, i., p. 229; Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 252 ff., p. 255; Kirchhofer, Quellensamml., p. 34 f., p. 89; Reuss,Hist. du Canon, p. 56; Schwegler, Das Nachap. Zeit., i., p. 222 f.; Semisch, Die ap. Denkw. M. Just., p. 140 f.; De Wette, Lehrb. Einl. N. T., p. 104f.; Westcott, On the Canon, p. 106 f.
[217:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 27, anm.
[217:2] Dial. 76, 120, 140.
[217:3] In Dial. 76 the text reads "from the east and from the west."
[217:4] Apol., 1:16, Dial. 35; cf. Matt. 7:15.
[218:1] Cf. Mark 8:11.
[218:2] Dial. 17. The passage quoted above, p. 215
[218:3] Cheirotonêsantes. Literally, "elected by a show of hands" -- by vote.
[219:1] Dial. 108.
[219:2] De Wette, Lehrb. Einl. N. T., p. 104.
[219:3] Dial, 76, 120, 140; cf. p. 347.
[219:4] Apol., 1:16.
[220:1] Bracheis de kai syntomoi par' autou logoi gegonasin. Ou gar sophistês hypêrchen, alla dynamis Theou ho logos autou ên. Apol., 1:14. This description completely contradicts the representation in the fourth Gospel of the discourses of Jesus. It seems clearly to indicate that Justin had no knowledge of that Gospel.
[220:2] It need not be said that the variations between the quotations of Justin and the text of our Gospels must be looked for only in the Greek. For the sake of the reader unacquainted with Greek, however, we shall endeavour as far as possible to indicate in translation where differences exist, although this cannot of course be fully done, nor often without being more literal than is desirable. Where it is not necessary to amend the authorised version of the New Testament for the sake of more closely following the text, and marking differences from Justin, we shall adopt it. We divide the quotations where desirable by initial letters, in order to assist reference at the end of our quotations from the Sermon on the Mount.
[220:3] The "kai" here forms no part of the quotation, and seems to separate the two passages, which were, therefore, probably distinct in Justin's Memoirs, although consecutive verses in Matthew.
[220:4] Origen repeatedly uses hos ean emblepsê, and only once pas ho blepon. Griesbach, Symb. Criticae, 1785, ii., p. 251.
[220:5] Clem. Al. reads ekkopson like Justin. Griesbach, ib., ii., p. 252.
[221:1] Matt. 5:29-30, it will be remembered, are repeated with some variation and also reversed in order, and with a totally different context, Matt. 18:8, 9. The latter verse, the Greek of the concluding part of which we give above, approximates more nearly in form to Justin's, but is still widely different. "And if thine eye ('right' omitted) offend thee pluck it out and cast it from thee; it is good for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire." The sequence of Matt. 5:28-29 points specially to it. The double occurrence of this passage, however, with a different context, and with the order reversed in Matthew, renders it almost certain that the two passages (A) and (B) were separate in the Memoirs. The reading of Mark 9:47 is equally distinct from Justin's: And if thine eye offend thee cast it out (ekbale auton); it is good for thee (kalon estin se) to enter into the kingdom of God (tou theou) with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell (ê duo ophthalmous echonta blêthênai eis géennan.)
[221:2] Cf. Matt. 19:9, Luke 16:18. The words aph' eterou andros are peculiar to Justin. The passage in Luke has apo andros, but differs in the rest.
[221:3] It will be observed that here again Justin's Gospel reverses the order in which the parallel passage is found in our Synoptics. It does so indeed with a clearness of design which, even without the actual peculiarities of diction and construction, would indicate a special and different source. The passage varies throughout from our Gospels, but Justin repeats the same phrases in the same order elsewhere. In Dial. 133 he says: "While we all pray for you and for all men as our Christ and Lord taught us to do, enjoining us to pray even for our enemies, and to love them that hate us, and to bless them that curse us" (euchesthai kai huper ton echthron, kai agapan tous misountas, kai eulogein tous kataromenous). And again in Apol., 1:14, he uses the expression that Christians pray for their enemies (huper ton echthron euchonmenoi) according to the precepts of Christ. The variation is therefore not accidental, but from a different text.
[221:4] The two passages within brackets are not found in any of the oldest MSS. and are only supported by Codices D, E, and a few obscure texts. All modern critics reject them. They are omitted from the Revised Version.
[221:4a] [See note above].
[221:5] The parallel passage in Luke 6:32, 27, 28, presents similar variations from Matt., though not so great as those of Justin from them both.
[222:1] In the first Gospel the subject breaks of at the end of 5:42. 5:46 may be compared with Justin's continuation, but it is fundamentally different. The parallel passages in Luke 5:30, 34, present still greater variations. We have given 6:34 above, as nearer Justin than Matt. 5:46. It will be remarked that to find a parallel for Justin's continuation, without break, of the subject, we must jump from Matt. 5:42, 46, to 6:19, 20.
[222:2] See note 223:1 below.
[223:1] This phrase, it will be observed, is also introduced higher up in the passage, and its repetition in such a manner, with the same variations, emphatically demonstrates the unity of the whole quotation.
[223:2] This passage (F) is repeated with the peculiar chrêstoi kai oikt. twice in Dial. 96, and in connection with the same concluding words, which are quite separate in our Synoptics. In that place, however, in paraphrasing and not quoting, he adds, "and sending rain on holy and evil." Critics conjecture with much probability that the Words kai brechei hosious have been omitted above after dikaious by a mistake either of the transcriber or of Justin. In the Clementine Homilies (3:57) a similar combination to that of Justin's occurs together with a duplication recalling that of Justin, although agathoi is substituted for chrêstoi. Ginesethe agathoi kai oiktirmones hôs o patêr ho en tois ouranois hos anatellei ton hêlion ep agathois, k.t.l. Epiphanius also twice makes use of a similar combination, although with variations in language; cf. Haer. 66:22, 33:10. Origen likewise combines Matt. 5:48 and 45; cf. de Princip. , 2:4, §1. These instances confirm the indication of an ancient connection of the passage as quoted by Justin.
[223:3] There is no parallel to this in the first Gospel. Matt. 5:48 is too remote in sense as well as language.
[223:4] The first part of 5:45 is quite different from the context in Justin: "That ye may be sons of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh," etc.
[223:5] There is a complete break here in the continuity of the parallel passage.
[224:1] Cf. Luke 12:22-34, which, however, is equally distinct from Justin's text. The difference of order will not have escaped notice.
[224:2] The Cod. Sinaticus omits kai ti piête. Codices A, C, and D are defective at the part. Cod. B and most other MSS. have the words.
[224:3] A few MSS. read "alms" (eleêmosynên) here; but the Cod. Sin. Vat., and all the older Codices, have the reading of the text which is adopted by all modern editors.
[224:4] It is apparent that if Justin could have quoted this phrase it would have suited him perfectly.
[225:1] Clement of Alexandria has in one place lamps. sou ta erga, and again ta agatha humon erga lampsato. Cf. Griesbach, Symb. Crit., ii, p. 250.
[225:2] That part of Matt. 5:22 intrudes itself between parallels found in 5:40 and 41 will not have been overlooked.
[225:3] That parallel passage, Luke 6:29, is closer to Justin's, but still presents distinct variations: "Unto him smiting thee on the cheek offer the other also, and from him that carrieth off thy coat do not thou withhold (mê kolysês) thy cloak also." To typtonti se epi tên siagona, pareche kai tên allên, kai apo tou airontos sou to himation kai ton chitona mê kolysês. the whole context, however, exclues Luke; cf. Mayerhoff, Einl. petr. Schr., p. 272.
[225:4] Eikê being omitted from Cod. Sin. Vat., and other important MSS., we do not insert it.
agrees with a passage which occurs twice in the Clementine
Homilies. The version in Ep. of James 5:12 is evidently a
quotation from a source different from Matthew, and supports
Justin. Clement Al. twice uses a similar expression, and Epiphanius
does so once, though probably following the Ep. of James. The
Apostolic Constitutions also quotes in similar manner. The
context of the Clementine Homilies corresponds with that of
Justin, but not so the others. We contrast all these passages
|James 5:12||êto||de||humon to vai vai,||kai||to ou ou.|
|Clem. Hom. 3:55||esto||humon to vai vai,||to ou ou.|
|Ib., 19:2||esto||humon to vai vai,||kai||to ou ou.|
|Justin, Apol., 1:16||esto||de||humon to vai vai,||kai||to ou ou.|
|Clem. Al. Strom. 5:14, § 100||esto||humon to vai vai,||kai||to ou ou.|
|Epip. Haer., 19:6||êto||humon to vai vai,||kai||to ou ou.|
|Constit. Ap. , 5:12||einai||de||to vai vai,||kai||to ou ou|
[226:2] Cf. Matth. 10:40, Mark 9.37, Luke 9:48, which are still more remote. In Matt. 7:24 we find: "Therefore whosover heareth these sayings of mine and doeth them (kai poiei aotous), I will liken him unto," etc. This, however, as the continuation of 5:21-23 quoted above immediately before this passage, is very abrupt, but it seems to indicate the existence of such a passage as we find in Justin's Memoirs.
[227:1] This is one of the passages quoted by De Wette (Einl. N.T.) as agreeing except in a single word.
[227:2] Justin repeats part of this passage, omitting "and doeth what I say", in Apol., 1:63: "As our Lord himself also says: He that heareth me heareth him that sent me." Justin, however, merely quotes the portion relative to his subject. He is arguing that Jesus is the Word, and is called Angel and Apostle, for he declares whatever we require to know, "as our Lord himself also says, etc.; and therefore the phrase omitted is a mere suspension of the sense, and unnecessary.
[227:3] In Dial. 76, Justin makes use of a similar passage. "And many will say to me in that day: Lord, Lord, did we not eat and drink in thy name, and prophesy and cast out devils. And I will say to them, Depart from me." Kai polloi erousi moi tê hêm ephagomen kai epiomen kai proephêteusamen kai daimonia exebalomen? Kai epo autois, Anachoreite ap emou. This is followed by one which differs from our Gospels in agreement with one in the Clementine Homilies, and by others varying also from our Gospels. Although Justin may quote these passages freely, he is persistent in his departure from our Synoptics, and the freedom of quotation is towards his own peculiar source, for it is certain that neither form agrees with the Gospels.
[227:4] Cod. D. (Bezae) reads for the last phrase ho de emou akouon, akouei tou aposteilantos me, but all the older MSS. have the above. A very few obscure MSS. and some translations add: "He hearing me, heareth him that sent me." Kai ho emou akouon, akouei tou aposteilantos me.
[228:1] Justin makes use of this passage with the same variations from our Gospel in Dial. c. Tr., 35. Polloi eleusontai epi to onomati mou, exothen endedymenoi dermata probaton, esothen de eisi lukoi harpages. With only a separating kai, Justin proceeds to quote a saying of Jesus not found in our Gospels at all. "And: There shall be schisms and heresies," Kai, Esontai schismata kai aireseis. And then, with merely another separating "And," he quotes another passage similar to the above, but differing from Matt. "And: Beware of false prophets who shall come to you outwardly clothed in sheep's skins, but inwardly are ravening wolves," -- and with the usual separating "And," he ends with another saying not found in our Gospels: "And: Many false Christs and false Apostles shall arise, and shall deceive many of the faithful," Kai, Anastêsontai polloi pseudochristoi kai pseudoapostoloi, kai pollous ton piston planêsousin. Both passages must have been in his Memoirs, and both differ from our Gospels.
[228:2] The parallel passage, Luke 13:26, 27, is still more remote. Origen in four places, in Joh. 32:7, 8, Contra Cels., 2:49, de Principiis, quotes a passage nominally from Matt., more nearly resembling Justin's: polloi erousi moi en ekeinê tê hêm to onomati sou epiomen, kai to onomati sou daimonia exebalomen, k.t.l. Cf. Griesbach, Symb. Crit., ii., p. 61 f.; Origen may have here confused the Gospel according to the Hebrews with Matthew.
[228:3] The Cod. D. (Bezae) has lampsôsin, and so also quotes Origen. Cf. Griesbach, Symb. Crit., ii., p. 278.
[228:4] The corresponding passage in Luke (13:26-28) much more closely follows the order which we find in Justin, but linguistically and otherwise it is remote from his version, although in connection of ideas more similar than the passage in the first Gospel. In Luke, the weeping and gnashing of teeth are to be when the wicked see the righteous in heaven whilst they are excluded; whereas in Matt. 13:42-43, the weeping, etc., are merely a characteristic of the furnace of fire, and the shining forth of the righteous is mentioned as a separate circumstance. Matt. 13:42-43, has a different context, and is entirely separated from the parallel passage in Justin, which precedes, and naturally introduces this quotation.
[228:5] This passage occurs in Matt. 3:10 and Luke 3:9, literally, as a saying of John the Baptist, so that in Matt. 7:19 it is a mere quotation.
[229:1] Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, 2:23, § 146) has this passage as follows: hô prleion edothê, outos kai apaitêthêsetai. Cf. Griesbach, Symb. Crtb., ii., p. 380. This version more nearly approximates to Justin's, though still distinct from it.
[229:2] The Codex D. (Bezae) reads pleon apaitêsousin instead of perissoteron.
[229:3] legô humin hoti are wanting in Justin.
[229:4] This passage, quoted by De Wette, was referred to p. 219, and led to this examination.
Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 129 f.; Credner,
Beiträge,i., p. 259.
[230:2] For the arguments of apologetic criticism the reader may be referred to Dr. Westcott's work On the Canon, pp. 112-139. Dr. Westcott does not, of course, deny the fact that Justin's quotations are different from the text of our Gospels, but he accounts for his variations on grounds which seem to us purely imaginary. It is evident that, so long as there are such variations to be explained away, at least no proof of identity is possible.
[231:1] P.220 f.
[232:1] Apol., i. 15. After the passages (A), (B), (C), and before the above, there is another quotation compared with Matt. 19:12 but distinctly different from it.
p. 223, note 4.
[234:2] Delitzsch admits the very striking nature of this triple quotation, and of another (in our passage J 3 and 4), although he does not accept them as necessarily from a different source. "Auffällig, aber allerdings sehr auffällig sind nur folgende 2 citate 'ginesthe chrêstoi k.t.l'." Apol., i., 15; Dial. 96, und 'Kurie, kurie, k.t.l.' Apol., i., 16; Dial. 76; Unters. u. d. Entst. d. Matth. Evang., 1853, p. 34.
[235:1] P.224 f.
[235:2] Apol., i. 16.
[236:1] P.225 f.
P.226, note 1.