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CHAPTER IX:
THE CRUSADES

Footnotes

[173:1] Charles Mills, History of the Crusades, vol. i., p. 24.

[173:2] Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. i., p. 33.

[173:3] A facetious sceptic inquired whether this accounts for the sterility of the holy land. Probably not, for as Gibbon satirically observes, Palestine was of about the size and fertility of Wales; a remark which is true, despite the rapturous eulogies of the Jewish bards.

[173:4] Mills, vol. i., p. 5.

[174:5] Antiquitates Italiae Med., vol. v., p. 58.

[174:6] Mills, vol. i., p. 15.

[175:7] Ockley's History of the Saracens (Bohn), p. 212.

[175:8] Gibbon, chap. lvii.

[176:9] Mills, vol. i., p. 29.

[176:1] Gibbon, chap. lvii.

[176:2] Ibid, chap. lvii.

[176:3] Chap. lviii.

[176:4] William of Tyre, cited by Mills, vol. i., p. 38.

[177:5] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[177:6] Michaud, History of the Crusades, vol. i., p. 40.

[177:7] Mills, vol. i., p. 36.

[177:8] Gibbon says an ass; Mills, following Guibert, says a mule.

[177:9] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[178:1] Vol I, pp. 45-60.

[178:2] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[178:3] Matthew 10:38; Luke 14: 27.

[178:4] Mills, vol. i. p. 55.

[178:5] Vol. I, p. 56.

[179:6] Michaud, vol. i., p. 56.

[179:7] Gibbon, chap, lviii.

[179:8] Hallam, vol. i., p. 35. Also Michaud, vol i., p. 51.

[179:9] Vol. I., p. 53.

[180:1] Hallam, vol. i. p. 35.

[180:2] Vol. I., p. 59.

[180:3] Vol. I., p. 59.

[180:4] Mills, vol. i., p. 61. Gibbon says fifteen thousand.

[180:5] Mills, vol. i., pp. 65, 69.

[180:6] Michaud says the number was from eighty to a hundred thousand.

[181:7] Vol. I., p. 67.

[181:8] Mills, vol. i., p. 70.

[181:9] Vol. I., p. 73.

[182:1] Mills, vol. i., pp. 71, 73.

[182:2] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[182:3] Mills, Vol. i., p. 68.

[182:4] Mills, vol. i., p. 74.

[182:5] Gibbon, chap. lviii; Mills, vol. i., p. 76; Michaud, vol. i., p. 71.

[183:6] Mills, vol. i., p. 76, 77; Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[183:7] Mills, vol. i., p. 78.

[183:8] Michaud, vol. i., p. 78.

[183:9] Mills, vol. i., p. 125. Gibbon doubts the number, but is "inclined to believe that a larger number has never been contained within the lines of a single camp." Michaud gives the number as "more than a hundred thousand horse, and five hundred thousand foot."

[184:1] Michaud, vol. i., p. 114.

[184:2] Vol. i., p. 171.

[184:3] Von Sybel, History and Literature of the Crusades, p. 31, 32.

[185:4] Von Sybel, pp. 51, 52.

[185:5] Chap. lviii.

[185:6] Michaud, vol. i., p. 137.

[185:7] Mills, vol. i., pp. 173, 227.

[185:8] Mills, vol. i, pp. 179, 184.

[185:9] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[186:1] Michaud, vol. i., p. 136.

[186:2] Mills, vol. i., p. 194.

[186:3] Vol, I., p. 195.

[187:4] Mills, vol. i., p. 196.

[187:5] Holy Warre, bk. i., chap. viii.

[187:6] Michaud, vol. i., p. 161.

[188:7] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[188:8] Michaud, vol. i., p. 181.

[188:9] Vol I., p. 227.

[189:1] Vol I., p. 240.

[189:2] Hallam, vol. i., p. 31.

[190:3] Sketches from Venetian History (Murray), vol. i., pp. 32, 33.

[190:4] Mills, vol. i., p. 242. Gibbon says the garrison consisted of Turks and Arabians, but agrees with Mills as to the number.

[190:5] Vol. I., p. 267.

[191:6] Discours sur l'Histoire Ecclésiastique, X., 3.

[191:7] Michaud says that "The oriental historians agree with the Latin in giving the number of Mussulmans killed in Jerusalem as above seventy thousand." He adds that "the carnage lasted a week." Vol. I., p. 228.

[191:8] Chap. lviii.

[191:9] Histoire des Croisades, vol. i., p. 442. This being a critical point of the Crusaders' history, we have made our own translation from the French original, instead of trusting to the English edition, which is, however, an excellent work.

[192:1] Vol. I., pp. 253, 254.

[192:2] Von Sybel, p. 42.

[192:3] Quoted by Dr. Smith, Gibbon, vol. vii., p. 228.

[192:4] Michaud, vol. i., p. 227.

[192:5] Michaud (French edition), vol. i., pp. 447, 448.

[192:6] Dear old Fuller writes, "The second massacre was no slip of extemporary passion, but a studied and premeditated act. Besides, the execution was merciless, upon sacking children, whose not speaking spake for them; and on women, whose weakness is a shield to defend them against a valiant man." -- Holy Warre, bk. i., chap. xxiv.

[193:7] Mills, vol. i., p. 258.

[193:8] Vol, I., p. 227.

[193:9] Michaud, vol. i., p. 225.

[194:1] Mills, vol. i., p. 256.

[194:2] Mills, vol. i. p. 263.

[194:3] Gibbon, chap. lviii.

[194:4] Mills, vol. i., p. 341.

[195:5] Vol. I., p. 278.

[195:6] Michaud, vol. i., p. 286.

[195:7] Mills, vol. i. p. 284.

[195:8] Mills, vol. i., pp. 55, 57, 334, 335.

[196:9] Michaud, vol. i., p. 410.

[196:1] Michaud, vol. i., p. 249.

[196:2] Michaud, vol. i., p. 339.

[197:3] Jortin, vol. iii., pp. 312, 313.

[197:4] Vol, I., p. 343.

[197:5] Hecker's Epidemics of the Middle Ages,--Appendix; Mills, vol.ii.--Appendix. Note GG. See also a very learned and interesting letter on this subject, by M. Jourdain, in Michaud's appendices: vol. iii., pp. 441-446.

[198:6] Von Sybel, p. 120.

[198:7] Gibbon, chap. lix.

[198:8] Von Sybel, p. 120.

[198:9] Hume, History of England, chap. x.

[198:1] Gibbon, chap. lix.

[199:2] Mills, vol. ii., p. 46.

[199:3] Vol. II., p. 345 (French edition).

[199:4] Chap. lix.

[199:5] Inferno, canto iv., 129.

[199:6] Vol. II., p. 47, footnote.

[199:7] Vol. I., p. 433.

[200:8] Chap. lix.

[200:9] Michaud, vol. i., p. 483.

[201:1] Sir J. Mackintosh, History of England, vol. i., p. 184.

[201:2] Michaud, vol, i., p. 487; Gibbon, chap. lix.; Mills, vol. ii., p. 111.

[201:3] Michaud, vol. i., p. 501.

[201:4] Michaud, vol. ii., pp. 26, 31.

[202:5] Mills, vol. ii., p. 157.

[202:6] Gibbon, chap. lx.

[202:7] Gibbon, chap. lx.  Finlay (Mediaeval Greece, p. 98) says that the fire lasted two days and nights.

[202:8] Michaud, vol. ii., p. 128.

[203:9] Vol. II, p. 192.

[203:1] Chap. lx.

[203:2] Vol. II, p. 134.

[203:3] Michaud, vol. ii., p. 134.

[204:4] Gibbon, chap. lx.

[204:5] Carlyle, French Revolution, Bk. v., chap. 4.

[204:6] Michaud, vol. ii., p. 133.

[204:7] Michaud, vol. ii., p. 137.

[205:8] Mills, vol. ii., p. 417.

[205:9] Gibbon, chap. lx.

[205:1] Michaud, vol. ii., pp. 141-143.

[205:2] Vol. II., p. 223; Michaud, vol. ii., p. 250.

[205:3] Vol. II., p. 244.

[206:4] Mills, vol. ii., p. 287.

[206:5] Michaud, vol. ii., p. 390.

[206:6] Vol. II., p. 287.

[207:7] Vol. III, p. 369.

[207:8] Mills, vol. ii., p. 321.

[207:9] Michaud, vol. iii., p. 57.

[208:1] Michaud, vol. iii., p. 117.

[209:2] Michaud, vol. iii., p. 250.

[209:3] Vol. III., p. 253.

[209:4] Vol. III, p. 345.

[209:5] Vol. I., p. 124.

[209:6] History of England, chap. i.

[210:7] Mills, Vol. ii., p. 390.

[210:8] Bacon, War with Spain.

[210:9] Johnson, note on Henry IV, Act i., scene i.

[211:1] Koran, "Preliminary Discourse."

[211:2] Sale's Koran, chap. ix., footnote.

[211:3] Chap. 1.

[211:4] Gibbon, chap. li.

[211:5] Gibbon, chap. li.

[212:6] Vol. I., p. 123.

[212:7] Vol. I., p. 56.

[212:8] View of the State of Europe," § 1.

[212:9] Chap. lxi.

[212:1] Vol. II., p. 429.

[212:2] "Essays," Machiavelli.

[213:3] Literary History of the Middle Ages, p. 269.

[213:4] Literature of Europe, vol. i., p. 94.

[213:5] Mills, vol. ii., pp. 415-423.

[213:6] View, etc., § 1.

[213:7] Michaud, vol. iii., p. 270.

[214:8] Ecclesiastical Benefices and Revenues, pp. 110, 111.

[214:9] Michaud, vol. i., p. 453.

[215:1] Chap. lxi.

[215:2] Vol. III, p. 368.

[215:3] History of Latin Christianity, vol. iv., p. 201.
 


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