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Part 6, Chapter 3 (Concl'd) (pp. 873-901)

[874:1] Westcott, The Gospel of the Resurrection, 3rd ed., p. 106 f.

[874:2] Evidences and Horae Paulinae, ed. Potts, 1850, p. 6.

[875:1] Gfrörer, who maintains the theory of a Scheintod with great ability, thinks that Jesus had believers amongst the rulers of the Jews, who, although they could not shield him from the opposition against him, still hoped to save him from death. Joseph, a rich man, found the means of doing so. He prepared the new sepulchre close to the place of execution, to be at hand -- begged the body from Pilate - the immense quantity of spices bought by Nicodemus being merely to distract the attention of the Jews -- and Jesus, being quickly carried to the sepulchre, was restored to life by their efforts. He interprets the famous verse, John 20:17, curiously. The expression, "I have not yet ascended to my Father and your Father," etc., he takes as meaning simply the act of dying -- "going to heaven"; and the reply of Jesus is equivalent to: "Touch me not, for I am still flesh and blood -- I am not yet dead." Jesus sees his disciples only a few times mysteriously, and, believing that he had set the final seal to the truth of his work by his death, he then retires into impenetrable gloom (Das Heiligthum und die Wahrheit, p. 107 f., p. 231 f.).

[876:1] Holsten remarks that the cry put into the mouth of Jesus on the Cross, in the first and second Synoptics, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" if genuine, can scarcely be otherwise historically conceived than as a surrender of his last hope that God's will would not continue his sufferings even unto death (Zum Ev. des Paulus u. Petr., p. 227).

[876:2] The repeated statement in the Gospels, that the women and his disciples did not at first recognise the risen Jesus, is quoted in connection with this point.

[877:1] Psychological Inquiries, 1854, p. 78; cf. 79 f.

[878:1] Sir John Herschel gives a full account of them in his Popular Lectures on Scientific Subjects (Daldy, Isbester, & Co., 1876, p. 402 f

[878:2] Principles of Mental Physiology, 4th ed., 1876, p. 113 f.

[878:3] Ib., p. 155 f.

[879:1] Influence of the Mind on the Body, p. 44.

[879:2] Carpenter, ib., 206 f.

[879:3] It is likewise quoted by Dr. Carpenter, p. 207 f.

[880:1] Demonology and Witchcraft, 1868, Letter i., p. 37 f.

[880:2] Inquiries Concerning the Intellectual Powers, 19th ed., p. 274 f.

[880:3] Everyone remembers the case of Luther and his visions of the Devil.

[880:4] Sketches of the Philosophy of Apparitions, by Samuel Hibbert, M.D., F.R.S.E., 2nd ed., 1825, p. 375.

[880:5] We might point in illustration to the use of "Tongues" in the Corinthian Church, where the contagiousness of the ecstatic state is exemplified (1 Cor. 14:23, 26 f.).

[881:1] Principles of Mental Physiology, 1876, p. 208 f.

[882:1] Principles of Mental Physiology, 1876, p. 209.

[882:2] Farrar, Life of Christ, ii., p. 419; Milman, Hist. of Christianity, i. 336 f. Passages quoted p. 817 f.

[882:3] We refer readers to some most interesting remarks of Dr. Lightfoot on the miraculous elements in the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Apost. Fathers, part ii., 1885, p. 598) which are particularly appropriate whilst considering this argument. They are quoted in A Reply to his Essays, 1889, p. 154 f.

[883:1] The Chronicon Paschale dates it 42; and the following critics date it as noted: Michaelis, about 37? Kuinoel, 40; Heinrichs, 37? Eichhorn, 37 or 38; Hug, 35; Schmidt, 41; Bertholdt, 40; Feilmoser, 35; Winer, 38? de Wette, 37 or 38; Schott, 37; Schrader, 39; Anger, 38? Wieseler, 40; Ewald, 38; Meyer, 35 (Wieseler, Chronologie des apost. Zeitalters, 1848, Chronologische Tabelle; Meyer, Apg., p. 24).

[884:1] Carpenter, Principles of Mental Physiology, 1876, p. 456.

[885:1] Lightfoot, Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, Works, ed. Pitman, 1823, xi., p. 81.

[886:1] Ib., xi., p. 299 f.

[888:1] Ewald points out that, according to the belief of the period, the souls of the dead hovered for a time between heaven and earth, and he considers that the belief undeniably played an important part in this sphere of visions of the Christ (Gesch. d. V. Isr., vi., p. 72 a.).

[890:2] We do not go into any argument based on the order given in the first two Synoptics to go into Galilee -- a three days' journey at least -- where the disciples were to see Jesus. Nor need we touch upon other similar points which arise out of the narratives of the Gospels.

[892:1] Contra Cels., 2:63. It is curious that, in an earlier chapter, Origen, discussing the question of Celsus, whether anyone who had been actually dead had ever risen with a real body, says that if Celsus had been a Jew who believed that Elijah and Elisha had raised little children he could not have advanced this objection. Origen adds that he thinks the reason why Jesus appeared to no other nation but the Jews was, that they had become accustomed to miracles, and could, by comparing the works of Jesus and what was told of him with what had been done before, recognise that he was greater than all who had preceded him (2:57).

[896:5] Hilgenfeld, Zeitschr. wiss. Theol., 1864, p. 174 f.; Holsten, Zum Ev. Paulus u. Petr., p. 21 f., p. 122 f. Hilgenfeld points out that the representation of such a separation from the body as Paul here contemplates is to be found in Philo (De Somniis, i., § 6).

[898:1] "If those appearances (to his disciples) were purely subjective," objects Dr. Farrar, "how can we account for their sudden, rapid, and total cessation?" (Life of Christ, ii., p. 432, note 1). We might reply that, if objective, such a cessation would be still more unaccountable. Being subjective, the appearances, of course, ceased when the conditions of excitement and expectancy which produced them passed away. But, in point of fact, they did not suddenly and totally cease. The appearance to Paul occurred after a considerable interval, and there is the tradition of more than one appearance to him; but throughout the history of the Church we hear of similar subjective visions whenever a fitting individual has been found in the state to receive them.

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