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Part 5, Chapter 2 (pp. 756-777)

[756:1] Complete Edition, vol. i., p. 200 f.

[756:2] Dr. Kuenen has made a very similar remark regarding the Old Testament. He says: "When Ezra and Nehemiah relate to us what they themselves did or experienced, there does not appear in their narratives a single departure from the common order of things. On the other hand, these departures are very numerous in the accounts which are separated by a greater or lesser interval from the time to which they refer" (De Godsdienst van Israel, 1869, i., p. 22).

[756:3] These words are printed "in him," but we venture to correct what seems evidently to be a mere misprint, substituting "by" (dia), as in the authorised version, to which Dr. Sanday adheres throughout the whole of these passages, even when it does not represent the actual sense of the original.

[757:1] Sanday, The Gospels in the Second Century, 1876, p. 11; cf. Westcott, On the Canon, 4th ed., 1874, p. 30; Lightfoot, Contemp. Rev., 1875, p. 854.

[758:1] The singular sêmeion of the Authorised Version must be abandoned before the almost unanimous testimony of all the older MSS.

[758:2] In the Epistles which bear the name of Paul it is only to be found in 2 Thess. 2:9, 3:17.

[759:1] Teras is only met with elsewhere in the New Testament five times: Matt. 24:24, Mark 13:22, John 4:48, 2 Thess. 2:9, Heb. 2:4.

[759:2] Rom. 1:4, 16, 20, 8:38, 9:17, 15:13, 15:19 (twice), 1 Cor. 1: 8, 24, 2:4-5, 4:19-20, 5:4, 6:14, 12:10, 28-29, 14:11, 15:24, 43, 56, 2 Cor. 1:8, 4:7, 6:7, 8:3 (twice), 12:9 (twice), 12, 13:4 (twice), and Gal. 3:5.

[759:3] "…In aliis vero exemplaribus, id est, in his quae non sunt a Marcione temerata, hoc ipsum caput (16:25-27) diverse positum invenimus. In nonnullis etenim codicibus post eum locum, quem supra diximus, hoc est 'omne quod non est ex fide peccatum est' (14:23) statim, cohaerens habetur: 'ei autem, qui potens est vos confirmare' (16:25-27). Alii vero codices in fine id, ut nunc est positum continent" (Comment. ad Rom., 16:25). This passage is only extant in the Latin version of Rufinus.

[759:4] 16:24 is wholly omitted by the Alexandrian, Vatican, and Sinaitic codices, and also by C and some other MSS.

[760:1] It is unnecessary for us to state that other codices, as B, C, D, E, א, and some cursive MSS., have the verses only at the end of 16; nor that they are omitted altogether by F, G, D***, and by MSS, referred to by Jerome.

[760:2] "Caput hoc (16:25-27) Marcion, a quo Scripturae evangelicae atque apostolicae interpolatae sunt, de hac epistola penitus abstulit. Et non solum hoc, sed et ab eo lo, loco, ubi scriptum est: Omne autem quod non ex fide, peccatum est (14:23), usque ad finem cuncta dissecuit" (Comment. ad Rom., 16:25). We shall not discuss the difference between "abstulit" and "dissecuit," nor the interpretation given by Nitzsch (Zeitschr. hist. Theol., 1860, p. 285 f.) to the latter word. Most critics agree that Marcion altogether omitted the chapters.

[760:3] Adv. Marc., 5:14; Rönsch, Das N. T. Tertullian's, 1871, p. 349. The passages from Tertullian's writings in which reference is supposed to be made to these chapters which are quoted by Rönsch (p. 350) do not show any acquaintance with them.

[761:1] The writer of 2 Tim. 4:19 represents them as in Ephesus.

[762:1] Diss. de duplici apend. ep. P. ad Rom. 1767; Paraphr. epist. ad Rom., 1769, p. 290 f.

[762:2] Uebers. u. Erkl. des Römer. u. Galaterbr., 1831, Einl.

[762:3] Einl., iii. 232 f.

[762:4] Einl., viii., p. 3303 f.

[762:5] Gesammtgesch. N. T., p. 327 f.

[762:6] St. Paul, 1869, p. lxiii f.

[762:7] Schulz, Stud. u. Krit., 1829, p. 609 f.; Ewald, Sendschr. d. Paulus, p. 345, anm., p. 428 f.; Laurent, NT. Stud., 1866, p. 32 f.; Mangold, Römerbr., 1866, p. 38, 62; Ritschl, Jahrb. deutsche Th., 1866, p. 352; Reuss, Gesch. N. T., p. 98; Schott, Isagoge, p. 249 f.; Weisse, Philos. Dogmatik, 1855, i., p. 146.

[762:8] Baur, Tüb. Zeitschr., 1836, iii., p. 97 f.; Paulus, i., p. 393 f.; Lucht, Ueb. die beid. letzt. Cap. des Römerbr., 1871; Scholten, Theol. Tijdschr., 1876, p. 3 f.; Schwegler, Das nachap. Z., i., p. 296; ii. 123 f.; Volkmar, Römerbr., 1875, p. 15 f., 129 f.; cf. Holtzmann, Zeitschr. wiss. Theol., 1874, p. 511 f.; Lipsius, Protestanten Bibel, 1872, p. 488, 612, 629; Rovers, Heeft Paulus zich op wond. beroep., 1870, p. 15 f.; Zeller, Apg., p. 488. Some consider ch. 16 alone inauthentic, as Davidson, Int. N. T., ii., p. 137; Weiss, Das Marcusevang., 1872, p. 495, anm. 1.

[763:1] Ho oun epichorêgôn humin to pneuma kai energôn dynameis en humin, ex ergôn nomou ê ex akoês pisteôs: Gal. 3:5.

[763:2] So Alford, Bisping, Ellicott, Ewald, Grotius, Hoffmann, Holtzmann, Lightfoot, Matthies, Meyer, Olshausen, Schott, Schrader, Usteri, De Wette, Wieseler, Wordsworth, etc., in 1.

[763:3] Olshausen, for instance, says: "Das 'en humin' ist nicht zu fassen: unter euch, sondern = 'en kardias humôn,' in. dem die Geisteswirkung als eine innerliche gedacht ist" (Bibl. Comm. iv., p. 58).

[763:4] Dr. Lightfoot says on the words "energôn dynameis en humin (Comp. 1 Cor. 12:10), energêmata dynameôn (with v. 28, 29), Matt. 14:2, ai dynameis energousin en autô (comp. Mark 6:14). These passages favour the sense 'worketh miraculous powers in you,' rather than 'worketh miracles among you'; and this meaning also accords better with the context: (comp. 1 Cor. 12:6), ho de autos theos ho energôn ta panta en pasin. What was the exact nature of these 'powers,' whether they were exerted over the physical or the moral world, it is impossible to determine. The limitations implied in 1 Cor. 12:10, and the general use of dynameis, point rather to the former. It is important to notice how here, as in the Epistle to the Corinthians, St. Paul assumes the possession of these extraordinary powers by his converts as an acknowledged fact" (Ep. to the Gal., p. 135); cf. Wordsworth, Gk. Test., St. Paul's Epistles, p. 57, and especially p. 128, where, on 1 Cor. 12:11, Dr. Wordsworth notes: "energei] in-worketh," and quotes Cyril, "…and the Holy Spirit works in every member of Christ's body," etc.

[764:2] Ellicott, St. Paul's Ep. to the Galatians, 4th ed., 1867, p. 154 f.

[765:1] Dr. Lightfoot, see note 2, p. 337.

[765:2] It is rendered "vertues" in Wyclif's version.

[765:3] "dynameis] powers. From persons he passes to things," etc. Wordsworth, on 1 Cor. 12:28, Gk. Test., St. Paul's Epistles, p. 129.

[765:4] Grotius renders dynamesin = virtutibus ad 2 Cor. 12:12 (Annot. in N. T., vi. 539).

[765:5] En is found in C, F, G, and other MSS., although it is omitted in the other great codices; this, however, does not affect the argument.

[765:6] So Alford, Billroth, Ewald, Maier, Meyer, Neander, Olshausen, Osiander, de Wette, etc., l. c.

[766:1] Olshausen, Bibl. Com., iii., p. 879 f.

[767:1] Stanley, Eps. to the Cor., p. 23.

[767:2] And again Rom. 1:16, etc.

[768:1] Comp. Rom. 4:11, "and he (Abraham) received a sign (sêmeion) of circumcision, a seal (sphragida) of the righteousness of the faith," etc.

[769:1] It is suggestive that the curious passage, Mark 16:17-18, is not even by the author of the second Gospel, but a later addition.

[770:1] The word is used in the following passages of Paul's four Epistles: Rom. 11:33; 1 Cor. 1:17, 19, 20, 21 (twice), 22, 24, 30, 2:1, 4, 5, 6 (twice), 7, 13; 3:19, 12:8; 2 Cor. 1:12.

[770:2] There is considerable room for doubt as to the real sense of this last phrase.

[771:1] We may here say that attempts have been made to show that the Apostle classifies the Charismata in groups of threes, and even sets forth the three persons of the Trinity as the several donors. It would be useless for us to touch upon the point.

[771:2] The word iama only occurs in the N. T. in 1 Cor. 12:10, 28, 29. It might better be rendered "means of healing," or "remedies."

[773:1] Dr. Wordsworth has on 1 Cor. 12:6, "energêmatôn] in-wrought works. Energêma is more than ergon. For energêma is not every work, it is an in-wrought work," etc. On v. 11: "energei] in-worketh"; and on v. 28: dynameis, powers" (Greek Test. St. Paul's Eps., p. 127 f.).

[773:2] We may point out further instances of the use of energein en in the New Testament, in addition to those already referred to, and which should be examined: Ephes. 1:20, 2:2, 3:20; Phil. 2:13; Col. 1:29; 1 Thess. 2:13; 2 Thess. 2:7.

[775:1] Cf. Eph. 4:7, 11; 1 Pet. 4:10, 11. Dean Stanley says: "It is important to observe that these multiplied allusions imply a state of things in the Apostolic age which has certainly not been seen since. On particular occasions, indeed, both in the first four centuries, and afterwards in the Middle Ages, miracles are, ascribed by contemporary writers to the influence of the relics of particular individuals; but there has been no occasion when they have been so emphatically ascribed to whole societies, so closely mixed up with the ordinary course of life. It is not maintained that every member of the Corinthian Church had all, or the greater part, of these gifts; but it certainly appears that everyone had some gift; and, this being the case, we are enabled to realise the total difference of the organisation of the Apostolic Church from any through which it has passed in its later stages. It was still in a state of fusion. Every part of the new society was instinct with a life of its own. The whole atmosphere which it breathed must have confirmed the belief in the importance and novelty of the crisis" (The Epistles of St. Paul to the Corinthians, 4th ed., p. 224).

[775:2] Christenthum und Kirche, 2te aufl., 1868, p. 298.

[778:1] Christenthum u. Kirche, 1868, p. 300 f.

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