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Part 4, Chapter 7 (Concl'd) (pp. 719-752)

[720:3] "Turning from Antioch to Galatia, we meet with Judaic teachers who urged circumcision on the Gentile converts, and, as the best means of weakening the authority of St. Paul, asserted for the Apostles of the Circumcision the exclusive right of dictating to the Church" (Lightfoot, Ap. to the Gal., p. 353).

[722:1] 1 Cor. 8:4 f., 10:25 f.

[722:2] Lightfoot, St. Paul's Ep. to the Gal., p. 126 f.

[722:5] 1 Cor. 8:1-13, 10:23 f.

[722:6] Numb. 25:2 f.; Psalm 106:28.

[724:1] Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 106.

[725:2] Wieseler (Chron. ap. Zeit., p. 194) conjectures the meaning of Paul to be that, but for the false brethren, he would actually have circumcised Titus, and thus have been consistent with the principles which he maintained by the circumcision of Timothy, 16:3.

[726:1] Jowett, The Eps. of St. Paul, i., p. 330.

[726:4] Jowett, The Eps. of St. Paul, i., p. 331.

[727:1] Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 107.

[727:2] Kr. Ex. H'buch. üb. d. Br. an die d. Gal., 63 f.

[728:1] Jowett, The Eps. of St. Paul, i. 240 f.

[729:1] Zeitschr. wiss. Th., 1858, p. 90.

[729:2] "They would sanction but not share his mission to the Gentiles" (Jowett, The Eps. of St. Paul, i. 236).

[732:2] 17:1 f. Cf. 10 f. 17 f.; 18:4 f., 19, 28; 19:8.

[732:4] Cf. Rom. 2:9-10. The oldest MSS. and versions omit the tou christou of the Authorised Version, which most editors, therefore, reject.

[732:5] Adv. Marc., 5:13.

[734:1] Beelen rightly interprets this passage in his Commentary on the Romans: "Sensus ergo est: Evangelii doctrinam non erubesco; est haec enim (gar) Dei salvifica quaedam vis cuicumque qui credit (panti tô pisteuonti Dativus commodi), sive Judaeus sit, sive Gentilis" (Comment. in Epist. S. Pauli ad Romanos, 1854, p. 23). So also Lipsius, Protestanten Bibel, 1874, p. 494. Lachmann puts the word prôton between brackets.

[734:2] Adv. Marc. 5:13.

[738:1] Die Kirche im ap. Z., 138. Ewald similarly argues that Paul circumcised Timothy to remove the stigma attaching to him as the child of such a mixed marriage (Gesch. V. Isr., vi. 445; Jahrb. Bibl. Wiss., 1857-58, ix., p. 64).

[738:2] Apostelg., p. 354.

[743:2] Lightfoot, St. Paul's Ep. to the Galatians, 1874, p. 355.

[745:1] Although this reading is supported by the oldest MSS. such as A, B, C, K, א, and others, the reading oi loipoi, "the rest," stands in D, E, F, G, I, and a large number of other codices, and is defended by many critics as the original, which they argue was altered to oi polloi, to soften the apparent hardness of such an expression, which would seem to imply that Paul declared himself the sole true exponent of the Gospel.

[745:3] 2 Cor.11:2-5; cf. Gal. 1:6 f.

[745:5] Jowett, The Eps. of St. Paul, 1855, i., pp. 326, 339.

[746:1] We do not think it worth while to refer to the argument that the collections made by Paul for the poor of Jerusalem, etc., in times of distress prove the unanimity which prevailed between them. Charity is not a matter of doctrine, and the Good Samaritan does not put the suffering man through his catechism before he relieves his wants.

[746:2] "Everywhere in the Epistles of St. Paul and in the Acts of the Apostles we find traces of an opposition between the Jew and the Gentile, the circumcision and the uncircumcision. It is found not only in the Epistle to the Galatians, but in a scarcely less aggravated form in the two Epistles to the Corinthians, softened, indeed, in the Epistle to the Romans, and yet distinctly traceable in the Epistle to the Philippians; the party of the circumcision appearing to triumph in Asia, at the very close of the Apostle's life, in the second Epistle to Timothy. In all these Epistles we have proofs of a reaction to Judaism; but, though they are addressed to Churches chiefly of Gentile origin, never of a reaction to heathenism. Could this have been the case unless within the Church itself there had been a Jewish party urging upon the members of the Church the performance of a rite repulsive in itself, if not as necessary to salvation, at any rate as a counsel of perfection, seeking to make them in Jewish language, not merely proselytes of the gate, but proselytes of righteousness? What, if not this, is the reverse side of the Epistles of St. Paul? That is to say, the motives, object, or basis of teaching of his opponents, who came with 'epistles of commendation' to the Church of Corinth (2 Cor. 3:1); who profess themselves 'to be Christ's' in a special sense (2 Cor. 10:7); who say they are of Apollos, or Cephas, or Christ (1 Cor. 1:12); or James (Gal. 2:12); who preach Christ of contention (Phil. 1:15, 17); who deny St. Paul's authority (1 Cor. 9:1, Gal. 4:16); who slander his life (1 Cor. 9:3, 7). We meet these persons at every turn. Are they the same, or different? Are they mere chance opponents, or do they represent to us one spirit, one mission, one determination to root out the Apostle and his doctrine from the Christian Church? Nothing but the fragmentary character of St. Paul's writings could conceal from us the fact that here was a concerted and continuous opposition" (Jowett, The Eps. of St. Paul, i., p. 332 f.).

[747:3] Apoc. 2:14, 20. We do not enter upon the discussion as to the exact interpretation of porneusai, always associated with the phagein eidôlothuta, regarding which opinions differ very materially. It is probable that the Apocalyptist connected the eating of things offered to idols with actual idolatrous worship. It is not improbable that the maxim of Paul, "all things are lawful unto me" (panta moi exestin), 1 Cor. 6:2, 10:23, may have been abused by his followers; and, in any case, such a sentiment, coupled with Paul's teaching and his abandonment of the Law, must have appeared absolute licence to the Judaistic party. We must also pass over the discussion regarding the signification of "Balaam." The Nicolaitans are not only classed as followers of the teaching of Balaam, but as adherents of Paul.

[748:1] Apoc., 2:24. This is the reading of א, P, and some other codices; A, B, C, read ta bathea.

[748:3] 2 Cor. 11:22; cf. Philip. 3:4 f.

[748:4] Haer., 30:16.

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