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Part 4, Chapter 4 (pp. 638-658)

[643:4] The Gospel commences with the announcement, 1:1, 17-18; cf. Mark 1:1 f.

[643:1] Luke 2:25-28; so also Elizabeth, 2:38.

[643:2] Matt. 2:5-6; cf. Micah 5:2.

[643:7] Luke 1:17 (cf. Matt. 11:14; 17:12 f.; Mark 9:11 f.), 2:67 f.; Matt. 3:3; Mark 1:1 f.

[643:8] Matt. 16:13-18; cf. Mark 8:29; Luke 9:20.

[644:3] In the Gospels the disciples are represented as not understanding such a representation, and Peter, immediately after the famous declaration, "Thou art the Christ," rebukes Jesus for such an idea (Matt. 16:21 f.; cf. Mark 9:32; Luke 9:45, 18:34, etc.).

[644:4] Acts 1:6. Hase pertinently observes: "The Apostolic Church, both before and after the destruction of Jerusalem, devoutly expected from day to day the return of Christ. If an interval of thousands of years (Jahrtausenden) occur between both events, then there is either an error in the prophecy or in the tradition" (Das Leben Jesu, 5te Aufl., p. 226).

[644:5] Cf. Acts 9:22; 2:36; 5:42; 8:4 f., 35; 10:36 f.; 13:23 f.; 17:3, 18:5, 28; 26:22 f. Hegesippus says of James that he was a witness both to Jews and Greeks that Jesus is the Christ (Euseb., H. E., 2:25).

[645:1] Acts 2:23 f., 3:13 f., 26:22 f.

[645:2] Acts 2:31, 3:26, 4:33, 5:30 f., 10: 40 f.

[645:4] Acts 4:4. There may be doubt as to the number on this occasion.

[646:1] Matt. 5:17-18; cf. 23:2 f.; cf. Luke 16:17.

[646:2] Ib., 5:19. Hilgenfeld (Einl. N. T., p. 469 f.) and some others consider this, as well as other parts of the Sermon on the Mount, to be inserted as a direct attack upon Pauline teaching.

[647:1] Matt. 12:3 f.; Mark 2:25 f.; Luke 6:3 f.

[647:2] Farrar, Life of Christ, i., p. 375, cf. p. 431 f., ii. 115 f.

[647:3] Ritschl limits the application of much of the modification of the law ascribed to Jesus to the disciples, as members of the "kingdom of God" (Entst. altk. Kirche, p. 29 f.).

[648:1] Ritschl, Entst. altk. Kirche, p. 34, cf. 46 f.

[648:2] Matt. 15:4, etc. Paley says: "Undoubtedly our Saviour assumes the divine origin of the Mosaic institution" (A View of the Evidences, etc., ed. Potts, 1850, p. 262).

[648:3] Matt. 19:17; Mark 10:17; Luke 18:18; 10:25 f., 15:29, 31, 32.

[648:4] Matt. 8:4; Luke 5:14; John 7:8.

[648:10] John 5:1, 7:8, 10; 10:22 f., 11:55-56; 12:1, 12; 13:1 f.

[648:11] Matt. 26:17 f.; Mark 14:12 f.; Luke 22:7 f.

[649:3] Lightfoot, St. Paul's Ep. to the Galatians, 4th ed., p. 343.

[649:6] This expression does not occur in the parallel in Mark.

[649:7] These psichia, it is supposed, may mean the morsels of bread on which the hands were wiped after they had, in Eastern fashion, been thrust into the dishes before them.

[650:1] Hilgenfeld, Die Evangelien, p. 64; Einl., p. 470; Reuss, Théol. Chr., ii., p. 348; cf. Schoettgen, Horae Hebr., p. 87; Keim, Jesu v. Nazara, ii., p. 406, anm. 3; Köstlin, Urspr. synopt. Evv., p. 178.

[650:2] Matt. 5:46 f., 6:7 f.; cf. Luke 6:32 f., where "sinners" is substituted for "Gentiles."

[650:3] Matt. 6:31 f.; cf. 20:25 f.; Luke 12:30.

[650:4] Gal. 2:15; cf. Lightfoot, St. Paul's Ep. to Gal., 4th ed., p. 114.

[650:5] Matt. 10:5-7; cf. Mark 3:13 f., 6:7 f.; Luke 9:1 f.

[650:7] Mt 15; cf. Acts 3:25, 26, 13:46.

[651:1] Farrar, Life of Christ, i., 208 f.

[651:2] Luke 10:1 f. We need not discuss the precise number, whether 70 or 72. The very same uncertainty exists regarding the number of the elders and of the nations.

[651:3] Even Thiersch is struck by this singular fact. "It is remarkable," he says, "that no further mention of the seventy disciples of Christ (Luke 10:1) occurs in the N. T., and that no credible tradition regarding them is preserved." (Die Kirche im ap. Zeit., p. 79, anm. 2)

[651:4] Euseb., H. E., 1:12.

[651:5] Ib., cf. 1 Cor. 15:5 f.

[651:6] See p. 63; Clem. Recog., 2:42; Epiphanius, 1:5; Eisenmenger, Entd. Judenthum, ii., p. 3 f, p. 736 f.

[652:1] Numbers 11:16 f., 25 f.; also the number of the sons of Jacob who went into Egypt (Gen. 46:27).

[652:2] Sanhedr. 1:6.

[652:3] Nos ergo primos elegit duodecim sibi credentes, quos Apostolos nominavit, postmodum alios septuaginta duos probatissimos discipulos, id vel hoe modo recognita imagine Moysis crederet multitudo, quia hic est, quem praedixit Moysis venturum prophetam (Recog., 1:40; cf. Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 356 f.). Hilgenfeld suggests the possibility of an earlier tradition out of which both the third Synoptist and the Clementines may have drawn their materials.

[652:4] Acts 3:22, 7:37; cf. Deuteron. 18:18.

[653:3] They were said to be "as a scab to Israel." Bab. Middah. fol. 13:2; Lightfoot, Horae. Hebr., Works, xi., p. 282.

[653:4] Exod. 12:48; Numb. 9:14; cf. Ex. 12:19, etc.

[654:1] Acts 10:2 f., 11:2 f. Dr. Lightfoot says: "The Apostles of the circumcision, even St. Peter himself, had failed hitherto to comprehend the wide purpose of God. With their fellow-countrymen they still 'held it unlawful for a Jew to keep company with an alien' (Acts 10:28)" (Galatians, p. 290).

[655:1] Pflanzung, u.s.w., p. 47.

[655:2] Acts 2:46; 3:1; 5:20, 42; 21:20-27, 22:17, etc.

[655:3] Gal. 2:3 f. As we shall more fully discuss this episode hereafter, it is not necessary to do so here.

[656:1] Acts 21:18-26; cf. 15:1. Paul is also represented as saying to the Jews of Rome that he has done nothing "against the customs of their Fathers."

[656:2] Dr. Lightfoot says: "Meanwhile at Jerusalem some years passed away before the barrier of Judaism was assailed. The Apostles still observed the Mosaic ritual; they still confined their preaching to Jews by birth, or Jews by adoption, the proselytes of the Covenant," etc. (Paul's Ep. to Gal., p. 287). Paley says: "It was not yet known to the Apostles that they were at liberty to propose the religion to mankind at large. That 'mystery,' as St. Paul calls it (Eph. 3:3-6), and as it then was, was revealed to Peter by an especial miracle" (A View of the Evidence, etc., ed. Potts, 1850, p. 228).

[656:3] Acts 10:1 f., 14, 28; 11:1 f.

[656:4] Dr. Lightfoot says: "The Master himself had left no express instructions. He had charged them, it is true, to preach the Gospel to all nations, but how this injunction was to be carried out, by what changes a national Church must expand into an universal Church, they had not been told. He had, indeed, asserted the sovereignty of the spirit over the letter; he had enunciated the great principle -- as wide in its application as the law itself -- that man was not made for the Sabbath, but the Sabbath for man.' He had pointed to the fulfilment of the law in the Gospel. So far he had discredited the law, but he had not deposed it or abolished it. It was left to the Apostles themselves, under the guidance of the Spirit, moulded by circumstances and moulding them in turn, to work out the great change" (St. Paul's Ep. to Gal., p. 286).

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