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Part 4, Chapter 2 (pp. 585-612)

[586:1] It is now universally admitted that the "Lucius" referred to in Acts 13:1 and Rom. 16:21 is a different person; although their identity was suggested by Origen and the Alexandrian Clement.

[587:1] The words "they came down to Troas" (katebêsan eis Trôada) are here translated "we came to Troas" (nos venimus in Troadem).

[587:2] Quoniam non. solum prosecutor, sed et cooperarius fuerit apostolorum, maxime autem Pauli, et ipse autem Paulus manifestavit in epistolis, dicens: 'Demas me dereliquit, et abiit Thessalonicam, Crescens in Galatiam, Titus in Dalmatiam. Lucas est mecum solus.' Unde ostendit, quod semper junctus ei et inseparabilis fuerit ab eo" (Adv. Haer., 3:14, § 1).

[587:3] H. E., 3:4.

[587:4] De vir. ill., 7.

[587:5] This view was held by Origen, Ambrose, and others of the Fathers, who, moreover, suppose Paul to refer to the work of Luke when he speaks of "his Gospel" (also cf. Eusebius, H. E., 3:4), an opinion exploded by Grotius. Grotius and Olshausen, both identify "the brother" with Luke. Many of the Fathers and later writers have variously conjectured him to have been Barnabas, Silas, Mark, Trophimus, Gains, and others. This is mere guesswork; but Luke is scarcely seriously advanced in later times. Dr. Wordsworth, however, not only does so, but maintains that Paul quotes Luke's Gospel in his Epistles, in one place 1 Tim. 5:18) designating it as Scripture (Greek Test., Four Gospels, p. 163, p. 170).

[587:6] Nicephorus, H. E., 2:43. Dr. Wordsworth, who speaks of "this divine book," the Acts of the Apostles, with great enthusiasm, says in one place: "The Acts of the Apostles is a portraiture of the Church; it is an Historical Picture delineated by the Holy Ghost guiding the hand of the Evangelical Painter St. Luke" (Greek Test., Int. to Acts, 1874, p. 4).

[587:7] Haer. 51:11; Theophylact (ad Luc. 24:18) suggests the view -- considered probable by Lange (Leben Jesu, i., p. 252) -- that Luke was one of the two disciples of the journey to Emmaus. This is the way in which tradition works.

[588:1] Cf. Eusebius, H. E., 3:4; Hieron., De vir. ill. 7. We need not discuss the views which attributes to Luke the translation or authorship of the Ep. to the Hebrews.

[588:2] Ewald, Jahrb. bibl. Wiss., 1857, 1858, ix., p. 55.

[588:3] Adv. Marc., 4:2.

[588:4] Hom. i. in Epist. ad. Rom.

[589:1] Hom.i. in Matt. Grotius considers that the ancient heading was euangelion Iêsou Christou, as in some MSS. of our second Synoptic (Annot. in N. T., i., p. 7). So also Bertholdt, Einl., iii., p. 1095, and others.

[589:2] We cannot discuss the authenticity of these Epistles in this place, nor is it very important that we should do so. Neither can we pause to consider whether they were written in Rome, as a majority of critics think, or elsewhere.

[590:1] O agapêtos adelphos kai pistos diakonos kai syndoulos en Kuriô. Coloss. 4:7.

[590:2] Coloss. 4:9.

[590:3] Ib., 4:10-11; Philem. 23-24.

[590:4] It is unnecessary to discuss whether 14:22 belongs to the hêmeis sections or not.

[593:1] Gesch. d. V. Isr., vi., p. 34, anm. 1; Jahrb. bibl. Wiss., ix., p. 52.

[593:2] Ewald, Gesch. d. V. Isr., 1864, i., p. 278; Hilgenfeld, Einl. N. T., p. 607.

[593:3] Quellen d. Schr. des Lukas, i., p. 188 f.

[596:1] The Sinaitic, Vatican, and Alexandrian, with other ancient codices, omit "I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem."

[599:1] 16:1 f.; cf. 17:14-15; 18:5; 19:22; 20:4.

[599:2] Einl. petr. Schriften, p. 6 f.

[600:1] In Matt. 24:3 the disciples inquire: "When shall these things be? and what the sign of thy coming and of the end of the world?" In Luke 21:7, "When shall these things be? and what the sign when these are about to come to pass?" The words quoted in the text from 21:24 are those which, according to several, determine that the work cannot have been written after the rebuilding of Aelia Capitolina.

[602:1] Ewald, Jahrb. bibl. Wiss., iii., p. 144.

[602:2] Cf. Matt. 24:34; Mark 13:30.

[602:3] Baur, Theol. Jahrb., 1849, p. 317 f.; Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 367 f.; Die Evangelien, p. 212; Einl. N. T., p. 609; Zeller, Theol. Jahrb., 1852, p. 229; Die Apostelgesch., p. 467.

[602:4] Baur quotes Censorinus, a writer of the third century: "Saeculum est spatium vitae humanae longissimum partu et morte definitum. Quare qui annos triginta saeculum putarunt, multum videntur errasse." (De die Nat., c.17; Theol. Jahrb., 1849, p. 318, anm. 1).

[603:1] Eusebius, H. E., 3:32.

[603:2] Ib., 4:3.

[603:3] Die Evv. Justin's, p. 367 f.

[603:4] Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., 5:30, § 3; Eusebius, H. E., 3:18; 5:8.

[603:5] Eusebius, H. E., 3:32.

[604:1] Josephus, Antiq., 14:5, § 3.

[604:2] Ib. Bell. Jud., 2:18, § 1.

[605:1] Some able critics are disposed to consider the words autê estin erêmos a mere gloss which has crept into the text. We need not discuss the argument that it distinguished the particular Gaza intended.

[605:2] Holtzmann, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 89 f.; Krenkel, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 141 f.; Hausrath, N. T. Zeitgesch. iii., p. 423 f.

[606:1] The whole of the preceding personages, indeed, figure largely in the first five chapters of Book 18 of the Antiquities. The condensed references in Luke 3:1-2, do not represent many pages of Josephus. It is curious to compare 3:1, en etei de tentekaidekatô tês hêgemonias Tiberiou Kaisaros … kai tetrarchountos tês Galilaias Herôdou, Philippou de tou adelphou autou tetrarchountos tês Itouraias kai Trachônitidos chôras, k.t.l., with the following of Josephus: tote de kai Philippos (Herôdou de ên adelphos) teleuta ton bion, eikostô men eniautô tês Tiberiou arches hêgêsamenos de autos epta kai triakonta tês Trachônitidos kai kai Gaulanitidos, k.t.l., Antiq. 18:4, § 6 -- "Now at that time also Philip, who was Herod's brother, died, in the twentieth year of the reign of Tiberius, after having for thirty-seven years governed the region of Trachonitis and Gaulonitis," etc. Lysanias of Abylene is referred to in Antiq. 19: 5, § 1; 20:7, § 1; and Annas and Caiaphas in an earlier paragraph of the same chapter we have just quoted 18:4, § 3; cf. 2, §§ 1-2, etc.). The story of Herodias is told in the next chapter 18: 5, § I f.; cf. 7 § 1; cf. Luke 3:19 f.). From Antiq. 20:7, § 2, may be learnt why Felix trembled, when he came with his wife Drusilla, and Paul discoursed to him of righteousness and temperance (Acts 24:24 f.). Berenice is mentioned in the very same section (Antiq. 20:7, § 2, cf. Acts 24:23). In Acts 24:27 Festus is introduced: "But after two years Porcius Festus came in Felix's room" (dietias de plêrôtheisês elaben diadochon ho Phêlix Porkion phêston). He is introduced by Josephus: "But Porcius Festus having been sent by Nero in Felix's room" (Porkiou de Phêstou diadochou Phêliki pemphthentos hupo Nerônos, k.t.l.). Antiq., 20:8, § 9.

[606:2] We shall not here discuss the historical reality of Simon the magician, cf. Acts 8:9 f., but in Josephus there is likewise Simon a magician, who helps Felix to marry Drusilla. The author of Acts introduces him, 8:9, "But a certain man named Simon (onomati Simôn) ... using sorcery (mageuôn) ... boasting himself to be some great person (legôn einai tina eauton megan)." Josephus says: "And one of his friends, named Simon (Simôn onomati) ... who pretended to be a sorcerer (magon einai skêptomenon)," etc., Antiq., 20:7, § 2.

[606:3] The third synoptist is the only evangelist who records the excursion to Emmaus, and it may be mentioned that the name of this village, even, may have been derived from Josephus, Antiq., 13:1, § 3; De Bello Jud., 5:2, § 3.

[607:1] Hausrath, N. T. Zeitgesch. xii. p. 425, cf. p. 32.

[607:2] Antiq. 20:5, § 1.

[607:3] Ib. 20:5, § 2; cf. 18:1, §§ 1, 6; De Bello Jud., 2:8, § 1; Luke 2:2,

[607:4] Antiq. 18:1, §§ 1, 6.

[608:1] Holtzmann, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 80 f.

[608:2] Antiq., 20:8, § 5. Cf. Hausrath, N. T. Zeitgesch., iii., p. 426.

[608:3] Antiq., 20:8.

[608:4] Ib., 20:8, §§ 5-6, 10.

[608:5] Ton ochlon epeithon autois eis tên erêmian epesthai, ib., § 6.

[608:6] Antiq., 20:8, §§ 5-6, 10; De Bello Jud., 2:13, §§ 3, 4, 5; Holtzmann, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 91.

[608:7] Antiq., 20:8; De Bello Jud., 2:13; Holtzmann, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 91.

[609:1] Holtzmann, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 92; Hausrath, N. T. Zeitgesch., iii., p. 426, anm. 4; cf. Hales, Analysis of Chronology, 1830, i., p. 300.

[609:2] De Bello Jud., 6:5, §§ 3, 4.

[609:3] Antiq., 15:11, § 3; Holtzmann, Zeitschr. Wiss. Theol., 1873, p. 92.

[609:4] Les Evangiles, et la Seconde Génération Chrétienne, p. 255 f.

[609:5] Luke 1:3-4; Acts 1:1.

[609:6] Vita, § 76. The amplification andrôn is of no importance.

[609:7] Antiq. Proem., § 2.

[610:1] Contra Apionem, 2:1.

[610:2] Ib., 1, § 3.

[610:3] Ib., § 6.

[610:4] Ib., 1:10.

[611:1] § 2, 10 twice, 11; encherein is also used in § 6.

[611:2] 1:1 § 10.

[611:3] Mark 16:17; 1 Tim. 4:6; 2 Tim. 3:10.

[611:4] Contra Apion., 1 §§ 10, 23; 2:1; kataolouthein also occurs, § 3, and in Luke 23:55, Acts 16:17.

[611:5] Matt. 2:8; akribesteron is found once, in Acts 18:26.

[611:6] Contra Apion., §§ 3, 10.

[611:7] The argument from page 600 to this point is extracted from an article by the author which appeared in the Fortnightly Review, October 1st, 1877, p. 496 f. An able work has since appeared, Josephus und Lucas, by Max Krenkel (Leipzig, 1894), in which the influence of the Jewish historian upon the author of the third Gospel and Acts of the Apostles is exhaustively examined and, we consider, fully established.

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