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Part 3, Chapter 1 (Cont'd) (pp. 459-486)

[459:9] Apol., 1:13, cf. 60, where he shows that Plato gives the second place to the Logos.

[459:10] Ib., 1:53.

[459:11] Ib. 1:49; ib., 2:6, 13; Dial. 126, 127.

[460:1] Dial. 62, 84, 100, etc.

[460:2] Ib., 61, 100, 125, 129, etc.

[460:3] Ib., 85, 138, etc.

[460:4] Apol., 1:63; Dial. 34, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 6 1, 127; cf. Apol., 1:6.

[460:5] Apol., 1:63.

[460:6] Ib., 1:63.

[460:7] Cf. Dial. 56-60, 127, 128.

[460:8] Apol, 1:12, etc.

[461:1] Philo, De Somniis, i., § 41, Mang., i. 656. See p. 456 f.

[461:2] For instance, in the quotations at p. 456 f. from Dial. 61, and also that from Dial. 62, in which the Logos is also called the Beginning (archê). Both Philo and Justin, no doubt, had in mind Prov. 8:22. In Dial. 100, for example, there is a passage, part of which we have quoted, which reads as follows: "For in one form or another he is spoken of in the writings of the prophets as Wisdom and the Day, and the East, and a Sword, and a Stone, and a Rod, and Jacob, and Israel," etc. Now, in the writings of Philo these passages in the Old Testament are discussed and applied to the Logos, and to one in particular we may refer as an illustration. Philo says: "I have also heard of a certain associate of Moses having pronounced the following saying: 'Behold a man whose name is the East' (Zech. 6:12). A most novel designation if you consider it to be spoken regarding one composed of body and soul; but if regarding that incorporeal Being who does not differ from the divine image, you will agree that the name of the East is perfectly appropriate to him. For indeed the Father of the Universe caused this eldest son (presbytaton uion) to rise whom elsewhere he names his first-begotten (prôtogonon)," etc. (De Confus. Ling., § 14). Can it be doubted that Justin follows Philo in such exegesis?

[461:3] De Confus. Ling., § 28; Mang., i. 427; cf. De Migrat. Abrahami, § 31, Mang., i. 463.

[461:4] Quis rerum div. Heres., § 42, Mang., i. 501 f.

[462:1] Dial. 128. See the quotation p. 456 f.

[462:2] Phil., 2:8; 1 Cor. 15:47.

[462:3] Elsewhere Philo says that the Word was the archetypal model after which man and the human mind were formed. De Exsecrat., § 8, Mang., i. 436; De Mundi Opificio, § 6, Mang., i. 6.

[462:4] Apol., 1:66 (twice); Dial. 45, 100.

[462:5] Dial. 48.

[462:6] Ib., 70.

[462:7] Apol., 1:5, 23, 63; Apol., 2:6, 13; Dial. 34, 45, 48, 57, 63, 75, 84, 85, 105, 113, 125, 127, etc.

[462:8] Apol., 1:21.

[462:9] Dial.129, cf. 62.

[463:1] A passage is sometimes quoted in which Justin reproaches the Jews for spreading injurious and unjust reports "concerning the only blameless and righteous Light sent by God to man" (Dial. 17), and this is claimed as an echo of the Gospel; vf. John 1:9, 8:12, 12:46, etc. Now, here again we have in Philo the elaborate representation of the Logos as the sun and Light of the world; as, for instance, in a long passage in the treatise De Somniis, i., § 13 f., Mang., i. 631 f., of which we can only give the slightest quotation. Philo argues that Moses only speaks of the sun by symbols, and that it is easy to prove this; "since in the first place God is Light. 'For the Lord is my Light and my Saviour,' it is said in hymns, and not only Light, but archetype of every other light -- nay, rather more ancient and more perfect than archetype, having the Logos for an examplar. For indeed the examplar was his most perfect Logos, Light," etc. (De Somniis, i., § 13, Mang., i. 632). And again: "But according to the third meaning he calls the divine Word the sun," and proceeds to show how by this sun all wickedness is brought to light, and the sins done secretly and in darkness are made manifest (De Somniis, i., § 15, Mang., i. 634; cf. ib., § 19).

[463:2] If the Cohort. ad Graecos be assigned to Justin, it directly refers to Philo's works, c. 9.

[463:3] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 73.

[463:4] Dial. 88.

[464:1] Matt. 3:11 reads: "but he that cometh after me is stronger than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear" (ho de opisô mou erchomenos ischuroteros mou estin, ou ouk eimi ikanos ta hupodêmata bastasai). The context is quite different. Luke 3:16 more closely resembles the version of the fourth Gospel in this part with the context of the first Synoptic.

[464:2] The second kai hômologêsen is omitted by the Cod. Sin.

[464:3] The Cod. Sinaiticus, as well as most other important MSS., omits this phrase.

[465:1] P. 199 f.

[466:1] Dial. 88.

[466:2] Apol., 1:22; Dial. 69. On the second occasion Justin seems to apply the "from their birth" not only to the blind, but to the lame and deaf.

[466:3] Apol., 1:22.

[466:4] Dial. 69.

[467:1] ... phantasian magikên ginesthai elegon. Kai gar magou einai auton etolmôn legein kai laoplanon. Dial. 69.

[467:2] P. 204 f.

[467:3] Justin has, Apol., 1:52, opsontai et's eis hon ekentêsanDial. 14, kai opsetai ho laos humôn kai gnôriei eis hon exenkentêsan, and, Dial. 32, speaking of the two comings of Christ; the first, in which he was pierced (exekentêthê), "and the second in which ye shall know whom ye have pierced"; deuteran de hote epignôsesthe eis hon exekentêsate.

[467:4] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 34.

[468:1] "Quod ibi (1 Regg. 2:18) errore interpretationis accidit, etiam, hic factum deprehendimus. Si enim legatur Dacaru, i.e., compunxerunt sive confixerunt accipitur: sin autem contrario ordine, literis commutatis Racadu, ôrchêsanto, i.e., saltaverunt intelligitur et ob similitudinem literarum error est natus."

[468:2] Credner, Beiträge, ii., p. 293 f. Cf. Sanday, Gospels in Sec. Cent., p. 281.

[468:3] Comm. in Apoc. Joh., 1829, p. 93, anm.1; cf. Die Joh. Schriften, 1862, p. 112, anm.1; Lücke, Offenb. Joh., ii., p. 446 f.

[468:4] Tekousa, a mother, instead of mêtêr.

[468:5] The Cod. Sinaiticus reads: "he cannot see."

[468:6] The Cod. Sinaiticus has been altered here to: "of heaven."

[469:1] The Cod. Sinaiticus reads idein for eiselthein eis here.

[469:2] The Cod. Sin. has tôn ouranôn, but tou theou is substituted by a later hand. The former reading is only supported by a very few obscure and unimportant codices. The Codices Alex. (A) and Vatic. (B), as well as all the most ancient MSS., read tou theou.

[469:3] Cf. 1:51; 3:11; 5:19, 24, 25; 6:26, 32, 47, 53; 8:34, 51, 58; 10:1, 7; 12:24; 13:16, 20, 21, 38; 14:12; 16:20, 23; 21:18, etc.

[469:4] It is very forced to jump to the end of the fifth verse to get eiselthein eis, and even in that case the Cod. Sinaiticus reads again, precisely as in the third, idein.

[470:1] Credner, Beiträge, i., p. 253; Davidson, Introd. N. T., ii., p. 375; Hilgenfeld, Die Evv. Justin's, p. 214; Lange, Ev. n. Joh., 1862, p. 84 f.; Lightfoot, Horae Hebr. et Talm. on John, iii. 3; Works, xii., p. 254 f.; J. B. Lightfoot, A Fresh Revision of the New Test., 1871, p. 142; Lücke, Comment. Ev. Joh., i., p. 516 f.; Meyer, Ev. Joh., 1869, p. 154f.; Reuss, Hist. Théol. Chrét., ii., p. 521 f., 523, n. 2; Scholten, Die ält. Zeugnisse, p. 36; Het Ev. n. Joh., 1865, pp. 21, 105, 237, 272, 387; Späth, Protestanten Bibel, 1874, p. 276 f.; Stemler, Het Ev. v. Joh., 1868, pp. 250, 338, 344, 400; Suicer, Thesaurus s. v. anôthen; de Wette, Ev. u. Br. Joh., 1863, pp. 61 Wordsworth, Gk. Test., The Four Gospels, p. 280; Zeller, Theol. Jahrb., 1855, p. 140. Cf. Bretschneider, Probabilia, p. 193.

[470:2] Cf. 1:31; 19:11, 23.

[470:3] Cf. Ezekiel 36:25-27.

[470:4] Cf. Lightfoot, Horae Hebr. et Talm.; Works, xii., p. 256.

[471:1] Apol., 1:61.

[471:2] Cf. 1 Peter 1:3, 28.

[471:3] Lightfoot, Works, xii., p. 255 f.

[471:4] Bretschneider, Probabilia, p. 193.

[472:1] Cf. Luke 1:1.

[472:2] Kai eipen, Amên legô humin, ean mê straphête kai genêsthe hôs ta paidia, ou mê eiselthête eis tên basileian tôn ouranôn. Matt. 18:3.

[472:3] Hom., 11:26; cf. Recogn., 6:9: "Amen dico vobis, nisi quis denuo renatus fuerit ex aqua, non introibit in regna caelorum." Cf. Clem. Hom. Epitome, § 18. In this much later compilation the passage, altered and manipulated, is of no interest. Uhlhorn, Die Homilien u. Recogn., 1854, p. 43 f.; Schliemann, Die Clementinen, 1844, p. 334 f.

[473:1] Dial. 100, etc.

[473:2] Ib., 78.

[473:3] Ib., 88.

[473:4] Ib., 88.

[473:5] Ib., 100.

[473:6] Ib., 99, 103.

[474:1] "And it is written that on the day of the Passover you seized him, and likewise during the Passover you crucified him" (Dial. 111; cf. Dial. 70; Matt. 26:2, 17 f., 30, 57).

[474:2] Dial. 81.

[474:3] Apol. 1:14.

[474:4] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 19, anm. 1.

[474:5] On the Canon, p. 182 f.

[475:1] Eusebius, H. E., 2:23.

[475:2] Cf. Acts 14:27; 1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 2:12; Col. 4:3; James 5:9; Rev. 3:8, 20;4:1.

[475:3] Cf. Ps. 24: 7-8 (23:7-8, Sept.).

[475:4] Strom. 6:8, § 64. This passage is not to be found in the Epistle of Barnabas.

[476:1] Spicil. Patr., ü., p. 254.

[476:2] In like manner the Clementine Homilies give a peculiar version of Deut. 30:15: "Behold I have set before thy face the way of life, and the way of death" (Hom., 18:17, cf. 7:7). We have already shown (p. 150 f) that The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (1-6) is based upon this text.

[476:3] Demonstrat. Evang., 3:7; Routh, Rel. Sacr., i., p. 235.

[476:4] "Si ego in Glossis ponerem: thura, didachê,rectum esset. Sed respicerem ad loca Graecorum theologorum v. c. Eusebii in Hist. Eccl. ubi non semel thura Christou (sic) de doctrina Christiano dicitur." Dissert. De Usu Glossariorum. Routh, Reliq. Sacrae., i., p. 236. Donaldson gives as the most probable meaning; "To what is it that Jesus is to lead us? And James' answer is therefore: 'To salvation' (Hist. Chr. Lit. and Doctr., iii., p. 190, note).

[477:1] See remarks regarding the Silence of Eusebius; Preface to Complete Ed., p. xviii. f.

[477:2] P. 276 f.; Preface to Complete Ed., p. xxi. f.

[477:3] It is evident that Papias did not regard the works by "Matthew" and "Mark" which he mentions, as of any authority. Indeed, all that he reports regarding the latter is merely apologetic, and in deprecation of criticism.

[477:4] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 112 f.

[478:1] Eusebius, H. E., 3:3; cf. 3:24.

[478:2] Cf. Preface to 6th ed., p. xi. f., xxi. f.

[478:3] Eusebius, H. E., 3:39.

[479:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 119.

[479:2] Ib., p. 119, anm.1.

[480:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 11 f.

[480:2] Eusebius has preserved the Greek of this passage (H. E., 3:39), and goes on to contradict the statement of Irenaeus that Papias was a hearer and contemporary of the Apostles. Eusebius states that Papias, in his preface, by no means asserts that he was.

[481:1] We have the following passage only in the old Latin version, with fragments of the Greek preserved by Andrew of Caesarea in his Comment. in Apoc., 18; 64, and elsewhere.

[481:2] Isaiah 66:22, Sept.

[481:3] With this may be compared John 14:2, en tê oikia tou patros mou monai pollai eisin. If the passage be maintained to be from the Presbyters, the variations from the text of the Gospel are important. Doubtless the expression, ta tou patros mou, may mean "my father's house," and this sense is ancient, but a wider sense is far from excluded, and the plural is used. In Luke 2:49 the very phrase occurs, en tois tou patros mou, and in the authorised version is translated "about my father's business" (cf. 1 Tim. 4:15). The best commentators are divided in opinion regarding the passage in Luke. It is necessary, in a case like the present, to convey the distinct difference between the words as they stand in Irenaeus and the saying in the fourth Gospel. Dr. Sanday has "In my Father's realm" (Gospels in Sec. Cent., p. 297).

[482:1] Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., 5:36, §§ 1, 2.

[482:2] Matt. 13:8; Mark 4:20; cf. Matt. 25:14-29; Luke 19:12-26; 12:47-48.

[482:3] Adv. Haer., 4:36, §§ 5, 6.

[483:1] Adv. Haer., 3:2, § 2; cf. 1:10, § 1; 27, §§ 1, 2; 2:22, § 5; 3. praef. 3, § 4; 21, § 3; 4:27, § 1; 32, § 1; 5:20, § 2; 30, § 1.

[483:2] Ib., 1:15, § 6.

[483:3] Ib., 2:22, §§ 4, 6.

[483:4] Adv. Haer., 2:22, § 5; cf. Eusebius, H. E., 3:23. "In Asia" evidently refers chiefly to Ephesus, as is shown by the passage quoted immediately after by Eusebius from Adv. Haer. 3:3, § 4, "the Church in Ephesus also … where John continued until the times of Trajan, is a witness to the truth of the apostolic tradition."

[483:5] Eusebius, H. E., 3:39.

[483:6] Adv. Haer., 3:3, § 3, 4. Fragment from his Epistle to Florinus preserved by Eusebius, H. E., 5:20.

[484:1] Quemadmodum audivi a quodam presbytero, qui audierat ab his qui apostates viderant, et ab his qui didicerant, etc. (Adv. Haer., 4:27, § 1; cf. § 2; 30, § 1). This has been variously conjectured to be a reference to Polycarp, Papias, and Pothinus, his predecessor at Lyons; but it is admitted by all to be impossible to decide upon the point.

[484:2] Hujusmodi quoque de duobus testamentis senior apostolorum discipulus disputabat, etc. (Adv. Haer., 4:32, § 1).

[484:3] Adv. Haer., 5:5, § 1.

[484:4] Ib., 3:21, §§ 3-4.

[484:5] Ib., 1:23, § 1; 3:10, § 1; 14, § 1.

[484:6] Ib., 3:10, § 6.

[484:7] Ib., 3:15, § 4.

[484:8] In the New Testament the term Presbyter is even used in reference to Patriarchs and Prophets (Heb. 11:2; cf. Matt. 15:2, Mark 7:3, 5).

[484:9] With regard to the Presbyters quoted by Irenaeus generally. Cf. Routh, Reliq. Sacrae, i., p. 47 f.

[484:10] Dr. Westcott affirms: "In addition to the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark, Papias appears to have been acquainted with the Gospel of St. John." (3) He says no more, and offers no evidence for this assertion in the text. There are two notes, however, on the same page, which we shall now quote, the second being that to which (3) above refers. "(2) No conclusion can be drawn from Eusebius' silence as to express testimonies of Papias to the Gospel of St. John, as we are ignorant of his special plan, and the title of his book shows that it was not intended to include 'all the oracles of the Lord' (see p. 61, note 2)." The second note is: "(3) There is also (!?) an allusion to it in the quotation from the 'Elders' found in Irenaeus (lib. 5 ad. f.) which probably was taken from Papias (fr. v. Routh et Nott.). The Latin passage containing a reference to the Gospel which is published as a fragment of 'Papias' by Grabe and Routh (fr. xi.) is taken from the 'Dictionary' of a mediaeval Papias quoted by Grabe upon the passage, and not from the present Papias. The 'Dictionary' exists in MS. both at Oxford and Cambridge. I am indebted to the kindness of a friend for this explanation of what seemed to be a strange forgery" (On the Canon, p. 65). The note 2, p. 61, referred to in note 2 quoted above, says on this subject: "The passage quoted by Irenaeus from 'the Elders' may probably be taken as a specimen of his style of interpretation" (!), and then follows a quotation, "as the Presbyters say," down "to many mansions." Dr. Westcott then continues: "Indeed, from the similar mode of introducing the story of the vine which is afterwards referred to Papias, it is reasonable to conjecture that this interpretation is one from Papias' Exposition." We have given the whole of the passages to show how little evidence there is for the statement which is made. The isolated assertion in the text, which is all that most readers would see, is supported by no better testimony than that in the preceding note inserted at the foot of an earlier page.

[485:1] Andreas, Proleg. in Apocalypsin; Routh, Rel. Sacrae, i., p. 15.

[486:1] Lücke, Einl. Offenb. Joh., 1852, ii., p. 526; Ewald, Die Joh. Schriften, ii., p. 37, f.; Guericke, Gesammtgesch. NT., p. 536; Tischendorf, Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 116, etc.

[486:2] On the Canon, p. 65.

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