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FOOTNOTES

Part 3, Chapter 1 (pp. 435-459)

[435:1] Dr. Westcott, however, cannot resist the temptation to press Clement into service. He says: "In other passages it is possible to trace the influence of St. John, 'The blood of Christ hath gained for the whole world the offer of the grace of repentance.' 'Through Him we look steadfastly on the heights of heaven; through Him we view as in a glass (enoptrizometha) His spotless and most excellent visage; through Him the eyes of our heart were open; through Him our dull and darkened understanding is quickened with new vigour on turning to his marvellous light.'" He does not indicate more clearly the nature and marks of the "influence" to which he refers. As he also asserts that the Epistle "affirms the teaching of St. Paul and St. James," and that the Epistle to the Hebrews is "wholly transfused into Clement's mind," such an argument does not require a single remark (On the Canon, p. 23 f).

[435:2] Lardner, Dr. Westcott, and others, do not refer to it at all.

[436:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 96 f.

[436:2] Ch. 12.

[436:3] Ch. 12; cf. Heb. 2:10; Rom. 11:36.

[436:4] On the Canon, p. 175.

[437:1] Simil., 5:6.

[437:2] Ib., 9:2, 12.

[437:3] Ib., 9:14.

[437:4] Ib., 9:12, quoted above.

[437:5] Ib., 9:12.

[437:6] On the Canon, p. 177 f.

[438:1] Simil., 5:6.

[438:2] Ib., 9:2.

[438:3] Ib., 9:12. Philo represents the Logos as a rock (petra). Quod det. potiori insid., § 31, Mangey, i. 213.

[438:4] Simil., 9:12.

[438:5] Matt. 7:24.

[439:1] Cf. Heb. 9:24, 11-12, etc.

[439:2] John 10:7, 9.

[439:3] Compare the account of the new Jerusalem, Rev. 21: 2 f.; cf. 22:4, 14. In Simil. 9:13 it is insisted that, to enter into the kingdom, not only "his name" must be borne, but that we must put on certain clothing.

[439:4] We may remark that in the parable Hermas speaks of the son as the heir (klêronomous), and of the slave -- who is the true son -- also as co-heir (synklêronomos), and a few lines below the passage above quoted, of the heirship (klêronomias). This is another indication of the use of this Epistle, the peculiar expression in. regard to the son "whom he appointed heir (klêronomos) of all things" occurring here (cf. Simil., 5:2, 6).

[440:1] Heb. 1:1 f.

[440:2] Alleg., iii., § 61, Mangey, i., p. 121; cf. De Confus. Ling., § 28, Mang., i., p. 427, § 14, ib., i., p. 414; De Profugis, § 19, Mang., i. 561; De Caritate, § 2, Mang., 2:385, etc. The Logos is constantly called by Philo "the first-begotten of God" (prôtogonos Theou Logos); "the most ancient son of God" (presbytatos uios Theou).

[440:3] Cf. Philo, Leg. Alleg., iii., § 31, Mangey, i. 106; De Cherubim, § 35, Mang., i. 162, etc.

[440:4] Cf. Philo, De Profugis, § 20, Mangey, i. 562; Frag. Mangey, ii. 655; De Somniis, i. § 41, Mang., i. 656.

[440:5] Dr. Westcott also says: "In several places also St. John's teaching on 'the Truth' lies at the ground of Hermas' words," and in a note he refers to "Mand. iii. = 1 John 2:27; 4:6," without specifying any passage of the book (On the Canon, p. 176, and note 4). Such unqualified assertions unsupported by any evidence cannot be too strongly condemned. Dr. Westcott's own words may be quoted against himself: "It is impossible to Exaggerate the mischief done by these vague general statements, which produce a permanent impression wholly out of proportion with the minute element of truth which is hidden in them" (On the Canon, 4th ed., p. 156, n. 1).

[441:1] The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, p. 73 f.

[441:2] Ib., p. 73.

[441:3] The Teaching of the Apostles, p. 89.

[442:1] Wann wurden, .u.s.w., p. 22 f. Lücke does not attach much weight to any of the supposed allusions in these Epistle. (Comm. Ev. Joh., 1. p. 43; cf. Sanday, Gospels in Sec. Cen., p. 273 f.).

[442:2] Ad Rom., 7.

[442:3] Die ält. Zeugnisse, p. 54.

[442:4] Matt. 26:26-29; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:17-20; 1 Cor. 11:23-25; cf. Luke 14:15.

[442:5] Cf. Scholten, Die ält. Zeugnisse, p. 54.

[442:6] Ad Philadelph., 7.

[442:7] John 3:8.

[442:8] John 3:20.

[442:9] 1 Cor. 2:10.

[443:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 23.

[443:2] Westcott, On the Canon, p. 32 f., and notes. We have inserted in the text the references given in the notes.

[443:3] Ad Philad, 9.

[443:4] P. 438 f.

[444:1] Compare the whole passage, John 10:1-16.

[444:2] Philo's birth is dated at least twenty to thirty years before our era, and his death about AD 40. His principal works were certainly written before his embassy to Caius. Dähne, Gesch. Darstell. jüd. alex. Religions-Philos., 1834, 1 abth., p. 98, anm. 2, Delaunay, Philon d'Alexandrie, 1867, p. 11 f.; Ewald, Gesch. d. v. Isr., vi., p. 239; Gfrörer, Gesch. des Urchistenthumus, i., p. 5, p. 37 f., p. 45.

[444:3] De plant. Noe, § 5, Mang., i. 332; De Mundo, § 2, Mang., ii. 604.

[444:4] De Monarchia, ii., § 5; Mang., ii., 225.

[444:5] De Agricult., § 12, Mang., i. 308; De Somniis, i., § 41, Mang., i. 656; cf. Coloss. 1:15; Heb. 1:3; 2 Cor. 4:4.

[444:6] De Profugis, § 25, Mang., i. 566.

[444:7] Quis rerum Div. Heres., § 15, Mang. i. 484; Quod det. potiori insid., § 31, Mang., i. 213.

[445:1] Leg. Alleg., iii, § 60, Mang., i. 121; cf. ib., §§ 61, 62.

[445:2] De Profugis, § 18, Mang., i. 560.

[445:3] De Abelis et Caini, § 3; Mang., i. 165.

[445:4] In general the Epistles follow the Synoptic narratives, and not the account of the fourth Gospel. See, for instance, the reference to the anointing of Jesus, Ad Ephes. 17; cf. Matt. 26:7 f.; Mark 14:3 f., cf. John 12:1 f.

[445:5] P. 158 f.

[445:6] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 24 f.

[446:1] We give the text of the Sinatic Codex as the most favourable. A great majority of the other MSS., and all the more important, present very marked difference from this reading. [In reference to this, Dr. Westcott has the following note in the 4th edition of his work, On the Canon, p. 50, n. 2: "The author of Supernatural Religion gives (ii., p. 268) a good example of the facility with which similar phrases are mixed up, when, with the Greek text of St. John before him, he quotes as '1 John 4:3,' kai pan pneuma, k.t.l.. (quoting the passage in the text above). Is this also taken from an apocryphal writing?" No, as was clearly stated in the note, it is taken from the Codex Sinaiticus. Dr. Westcott ought to have observed this. At the end of his volume, in a page of "addenda," he says: "I should have added that the singular combination of phrases which is quoted is taken from Cod. Sin. The words, as they stand, are liable to be misunderstood." In this he does himself injustice. It would not be easy to misunderstand the sarcastic question, and still less the curious addition made when his mistake was pointed out to him.]

[446:2] Volkmar, Der Ursprung, p. 48 f.

[447:1] Scholten, Die ält. Zeugnisse, p. 45 f.; cf. Volkmar, Der Ursprung, p. 48 f.; cf. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., 1:24, § 4; pseudo-Ignatius, Ad Smyrn., 5, 6.

[447:2] Scholten, Die ält. Zeugnisse, p. 46 f.; Volkmar, Der Ursprung, p. 48 f.; cf. 1 John 2:22; 4:2-3; 5:1, 5 f.

[447:3] Volkmar, Der Ursprung, p. 49f.; Scholten, Die ält. Zeugnisse, p. 46 f.

[447:4] P. 175 f.

[448:1] The date has, hitherto, generally been fixed at AD 160, but the recent investigations referred to, p. 175 f., have led to the adoption of this earlier date, and the visit to Rome must, therefore, probably have taken place just after the accession of Anicetus to the Roman bishopric (cf. Lipsius, Zeitschr. w. Theol., 1874, p. 205 f.).

[448:2] John 13:1; 17:28, 19:14, 31; cf. Matt. 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:8.

[448:3] Cf. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer., 3:3, § 4; Eusebius, H. E., 4:14, 5:24.

[448:4] Eusebius, H. E., 5:24.

[448:5] On the Canon, p. 145. In a note Dr. Westcott refers to Credner, Beiträge, i., p. 253 f. Credner, however, pronounces against the use of the fourth Gospel by Justin. Dr. Westcott adds the singular argument: "Justin's acquaintance with the Valentinians proves that the Gospel could not have been unknown to him" (Dial. 35). We have already proved that there is no evidence that Valentinus and his earlier followers knew anything of our Synoptics, and we shall presently show that this is likewise the case with the fourth Gospel.

[449:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 32. Kai Iêsous Christos monos idiôos tô theô gegennêtai, Logos autou huparchôn kai prôtotokos kai dynamis. Apol., 1:23.

[449:2] Ho de uios ekeinou, ho monos legomenos kuriôs uios, ho Logos pro tôn poiêmatôn, kai synôn kai gennômenos, hote tên archên di' autou panta ektise kai ekosmêse. Apol., 2:6.

[449:3] Written c. AD. 68-69; Credner, Einl. N. T., i., p. 704 f.; Beiträge, ii., p. 294; Lücke, Comm. Offenb. Joh., 1852, ii., p. 840 ff.; Ewald, Jahrb. bibl. Wiss., 1852-53, p. 182; Gesch. d. V. Isr., vi., p. 643, etc.

[449:4] Dial. 81.

[450:1] ... prostêsamenos ton orthon autou Logon, prôtogonon uion, hos tên epimeleian tês ieras tautês agelês oia tis megalou basileôs huparchos diadexetai. De Agricult., § 12, Mang., i. 308.

[450:2] De Confus. ling., § 28, Mang., i. 427, cf. § 14, ib., i. 414; cf. De Migrat. Abrahami, i, Mang., i. 437; cf. Heb. 1:3; 2 Cor. 4:4.

[450:3] De Somniis, 1, § 37, Mang., i. 653.

[450:4] De Cherubim, § 35, Mang., i. 162.

[450:5] De Monarchia, 2, § 5, Mang., 2:225.

[450:6] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 32 (Apol., 1:32).

[451:1] Philo, Fragm., i., ex. Euseb., Praepar. Evang., 7:13, Mang., ii. 625; cf. De Somniis, i., § 41, Mang., i. 656; Leg. Alleg., ii., § 21, ib., i. 83.

[451:2] Leg. Alleg., iii., § 73, Mang., i. 128.

[451:3] De Profugis, § 19, Mang., i. 561.

[451:4] Ib., § 19.

[451:5] Kai ho logos U de tou theou huperanô pantos esti tou kosmou, kai presbytatos kai genikôtatos tôn hosa gegone. Leg. Alleg., iii., § 61, Mang;, i. 121; cf. De Somniis, i., § 41, Mang., i. 656.

[451:6] Quis rerum div. Heres., § 42, Mang., i. 501.

[451:7] Ho Logos de tou theou estin ho uios autou. (Apol., 1:63).

[452:1] Epeidê de ou panta ta tou logou egnôrisan, hos esti Christos, kai e' nantia eautois pollakis eipon. Apol., 2:10.

[452:2] Apol., 2:12; cf. Dial. 2 f.

[452:3] Ib., 1:60, etc.; cf. 5.

[452:4] Ib., 1:46.

[452:5] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 32. All' hon tropon dia Logou theou sarkopoiêtheis Iêsous Christos 6 ho Sôtêr hêmôn, k.t.l. Apol., 1:66.

[452:6] Apol., 1:46.

[452:7] This is an error. Several of the preceding passages are out of the first Apology. No references, however, are given to the source of any of them. We have added them.

[452:8] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 32 (Apol., 1:33).

[453:1] Wann wurden, u.s.w., p. 32 (Dial. c. Tryph., 105).

[453:2] This should probably be "thy."

[454:1] Ewald freely recognises that the author of this Epistle, written about AD 66, transferred Philo's doctrine of the Logos to Christianity. Apollos, whom he considers its probable author, impregnated the Apostle Paul with the doctrine (Gesch. des. V. Isr., vi., p. 474 f., p. 638 f.; Das Sendschr.an d. Hebräer, p. 9 f.).

[455:1] Prov. 8:22; Sept. vers.

[455:2] Gen. 18:22.

[455:3] Exod. 6:29.

[455:4] Gen. 11:5.

[455:5] Gen. 7:16.

[456:1] Dial. 127, cf. 128, 63; cf. Philo, De Somniis, i., § § 11 f., Mang., i., 630 f.; § 31, ib., i. 648; §§ 33 f., ib., i 649 f.; §§ 39 f., ib., i 655 f. Nothing, in fact, could show more clearly the indebtedness of Justin to Philo than this argument (Dial. 100) regarding the inapplicability of such descriptions to the "unbegotten God." Philo in one treatise, from which we are constantly obliged to take passages as parallels for those of Justin (de Confusione linguarum), argues from the very same text: "The Lord went down to see that city and tower," almost in the very same words as Justin, § 27. The passage is unfortunately too long for quotation.

[456:2] Dial. 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 126, 127, 128, etc.; Apol., 1:62, 63; cf. Philo, Vita Mosis, §§ 12 f., Mang., i. 91 f.; Leg. Alleg., iii., §§ 25 f., ib., i. 103 f., etc.

[456:3] Dial. 128; cf. Apol., 1:63; Dial. 60.

[456:4] Cf. Apoc., 3:14.

[456:5] Dial. 61.

[457:1] Dial. 62

[457:2] Ib., 100.

[457:3] Ib., 126, 129.

[457:4] Ib., 34.

[457:5] Ib., 34.

[457:6] P. 450 f.

[458:1] De Agricult., § 12, Mang., i. 308.

[458:2] Eikotôs toinun ho men basileôs onoma hupodysetai, poimên prosagoreutheis, k.t.l. § 14, cf. De Profugis, § 20, Mang., i. 562; De Somniis, ii., § 37, Mang., i. 691.

[458:3] De Profugis, § 19, Mang., i. 561; cf. de Migrat Abrahami, § 1 Mang., i. 437.

[458:4] Dial. 42.

[458:5] Legis Alleg., § 26, Mang., i. 104, etc.

[458:6] Dial. 34, 83, etc.

[458:7] Heb. 7:11, 15, 17, 21 f., 26 f.; 8:1 f. 2:6, 17; 5:5, 6, 10.

[458:8] P. 450.

[458:9] Philo, De Somniis, i. § 37, Mang., i. 653.

[458:10] De Profugis, § 20, Mang., i. 562. Philo continues: that this priest, the Logos, must be pure, "God indeed being his Father, who is also the Father of all things, and Wisdom his mother, by whom the universe came into being."

[459:1] De Profugis, § 21.

[459:2] De Migrat. Abrahami, § 18, Mang., i. 452.

[459:3] Cf. verse 11.

[459:4] P. 451.

[459:5] Fragm., i., Mang., ii. 625; cf. Leg. Alleg., ii. § 21, Mang., i. 83.

[459:6] Philo, De Somniis, i. 39, Mang., i. 655.

[459:7] Ib., i. § 41, Mang., i. 656.

[459:8] Leg. Alleg., iii., § 73, Mang., i. 128.
 


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