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FOOTNOTES

Part 1, Chapter 4 (pp. 55-82)

[56:1] J. H. Newman, Two Essays on Scripture Miracles and on Ecclesiastical, 1870, p. 171. This passage occurs in a reply to the argument against admitting ecclesiastical miracles as a whole, or against admitting certain of them, that certain others are rejected on all hands as fictitious or pretended.

[57:1] History of Christianity, by H.H. Milman, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's; Murray, 1867, i., p. 84 f.

[57:2] John Lightfoot, D.D., Master of Catherine Hall, Cambridge. Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, Works (ed. Pitman), xi., p. 81, cf. p. 170.

[57:3] Ib., xi, p. 299 f. Cf. Schoettgen, Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, 1733, p. 474.

[57:4] We do not, of course, touch here upon the results of critical examination of the writings of the Old Testament, although these completely confirm the results of this work, but simply refer to points which bear upon our argument in the common view.

[58:1] This is unconsciously expressed throughout the Bible in such passages as Deut. 10:7: "For the Lord your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords, a great God, a mighty and a terrible," etc. (cf. Joshua 22:22, Deut. 11:28, 12:2 ff., Ps. 89:6, 7, and a host of other passages).

[58:2] An admirable inquiry into the religion of the Jewish nation is to be found in Dr. A. Kuenen's very able work, De Godsdienst van Israel, Haarlem. Eerste deel, 1869; tweede deel, 1870.

[58:3] Hoti pantes oi theoi tôn ethêôn daimonia (Ps. 95:5, Sept.). This is not to be wondered at, when in so many other passages the Israelites are represented in the Hebrew as sacrificing to devils when they worshipped other gods: cf. Levit. 17:7; Deut. 32:17; Ps. 106: (Sept. 105:) 37. In Isaiah 65:11 the words translated in the English version "that prepare a table for that troop" are referred to demons in the Septuagint: kai etoimazontes tô daimoniô trapezan. In Ps. 97:7 the word translated "gods" in the English version becomes angeloi autou in the Sept. (96:7).

[58:4] 1 Cor. 10:20.

[59:1] There is much discussion as to the date of this book. It is variously ascribed to periods ranging from two centuries BC, and even earlier, to one century after Christ.

[59:2] Tobit, 6:7.

[59:3] Ib., 3:7 f.; 6:14.

[59:4] Ib., 8:2 f.

[59:5] Ib., 3:17.

[59:6] Ib., 12:15. Origen also states that the archangel Michael presents the prayers of the saints to God (Hom. 14 in Num., Opp. 2, p. 323).

[59:7] v. 14 f.

[59:8] Tertullian, De Cultu fem., 1:3.

[59:9] Cap. 49:1, ff., cf. 6.

[59:10] In the extract preserved by George Syncellus in his Chronography (p. 11) the angel who taught the use of weapons of war, etc., is called Azael or Azalzel.

[60:1] Enoch, c. 49.

[60:2] C. 7

[60:3] C. 7:2: one MS. has 300.

[60:4] C. 15.

[60:5] C. 8.

[60:6] Cf. Daniel 10:13, 21; 12:1

[60:7] C. 20.

[60:8] Enoch, c. 40:12 ff., cf. 41, 34.

[60:9] C. 40:9 f., cf. 39

[60:10] C. 45:6 ff.

[61:1] C. 21., cf. 18:13 f.

[61:2] De Mundo opificio, §48; De Gigantibus, §2, cf. De Somniis i., §4 f., § 22.

[61:3] De Monarchia, i., §1.

[61:4] Rev. 1:20, 3:1, 4:5, 9:1, etc.

[61:5] C. 4:18. This work referred to by Origen (Ep. ad Africanum), Epiphanius (Haer. xl. 2, lxvii. 3), Jerome (in Esaiae, lxiv, 4), and others (cf. Fabricius, Cod. Vet. Test., i., p. 1086 ff.), as Anabatikon Hêsaiou, is dated variously from the middle of the first to the beginning of the third century. The work, long lost, was discovered and published by Lawrence, in 1819.

[61:6] Sohar, Genesis, p. 124, p. 266; Pirke Elieser, xlvi.; Eisenmenger, Entd. Jud., ii., p. 387 f.; Gfrörer, Das Jahrh. d. Heils, i., p. 366.

[61:7] Hieros. Targ. Exod., 12:12, 33:23; Deut. 34:5, etc., etc.

[61:8] Chagigah Bab., p. 14, 1, 2; Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 371 ff.

[61:9] Matt. 26:53.

[61:10] Hieros. Targ. Genes., 17:2; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 363 f.

[62:1] Jalkul Chadasch, p. 147, 3; Eisenmenger, ib.., ii., p. 376 ff.; Gfrörer, ib.., i., p. 369.

[62:2] 2 Sam. 14:15 f.

[62:3] Berith Minucha, p. 37, 1; cf. Tract Pesachim p. 118, 1, 2; Sanhedrin, 95, 2; Eisenmenger, ib.., ii., p. 378 ff; Gfrörer, ib.., i., p. 369. The Targum upon 1 Kings 19:11-12, reads: "A host of the angels of the wind, a host of the angels of Commotion, a host of the angels of fire and after the host of the angels of fire, the voice of the silent singers." Lightfoot, Horae Heb. et. Talm., Works, xii., p. 35.

[62:4] Bava Mezia, 36, 1; Succah, 53, 1; Bava Bathra, 16, 1; Eisenmenger, ib.., i., p. 821 f., p. 854 ff.; Lightfoot, ib.., xii., p. 428, p. 507 f.; Schoettgen, Horae Heb. et Talm., p. 935.

[62:5] C. 14:18.

[62:6] C. 7:2, Cf. 9:11; 19:17.

[63:1] Tract, Sotah, 33, 1; Gfrörer, ib.., i., p. 366 ff; Eisenmenger, ib.., ii., p. 365, p. 374 f.

[63:2] Beracoth, C. 2; Bab. Schabbath, 12, 2; Sotah, 33, 1; Lightfoot, ib.., xi., p. 22; Eisenmenger, ib.., i., p. 675 f.; ii., p. 392 f.

[63:3] Eisenmenger, ib.., i., p. 805 ff., p. 816 f.

[63:4] Gen. 46:27, Exod. 1:5, Deut. 10:22. Seventy disciples were, therefore, chosen to preach the Gospel, Luke 10:1 f. Of course, we need not here speak of the import of this number.

[63:5] Cf. Pirke Elieser, xxiv. Gfrörer, ib.., i., p. 370; Eisenmenger, ib.., i., p. 810.

[63:6] Cf. Daniel 10:21.

[63:7] Bab. Menacoth, 110, 1; Beracoth, 4, 2; Sohar, Genes., fol. 17, col. 66; Thosaphtah Chollin, ii. 6; Jalkut Rubeni, 80, 1, 92, 4; Sevachim, 62, 1; Gfrörer,ib.., i., p. 371 f.; Schoettgen, ib.., p. 1219 ff.

[63:8] 10:10 ff., and more especially verse 13.

[63:9] C. 12:7.

[64:1] Hieros. Targ. Genes., 33:10, 48:16.

[64:2] Matt. 18:10.

[64:3] Acts 12:15.

[64:4] Heb. 1:14.

[64:5] Hieros Beracoth, ix. 5; Bab. Beracoth, 60, i; Gittin, 70, 1; Eisenmenger, ib., ii., 449 f.; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 374 f.; Moïse Schwab, Traité des Berakhoth, 1871, p. 169.

[64:6] Passing over the synoptic Gospels, in which references to demons abound, cf. 1 Cor. 10:20-21; James 2:19; 1 Tim. 4:1; Eph. 2:2, cf. 4:12; Rev. 9:20, 16:14, 18:2.

[64:7] Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 437 f.

[64:8] Ib., i., p. 380 f.

[64:9] Bab. Chagigah, 16, 1; Schoettgen, ib., p. 1049; Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 415.

[64:10] Beracoth, 6, 1; Sohar, Genes., p. 171; ib., Numbers, p. 29 1;Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 446, p. 461 f.; Moïse Schwab, Traité des Berakhoth, 1871, p. 239.

[65:1] Bab. Beracoth, 6, 1. In the Tract. Gittin (68, 2) of the Talmud, Asmodeus is represented as coming to Solomon's wives by night with slippers on to conceal his cock's feet. Eisenmenger, ib., i., p. 356, p. 424 f.; ii., p. 445; Gfrörer, ib., i., pp. 407-409; Moïse Schwab, Traité des Berakhoth, 187, p. 239 f.

[65:2] Sohar, Exod., f. 67, col 267; Schoettgen, ib., p. 316; cf. Ephes. vi. 12.

[65:3] Sanhedrin, 44, 1; 3, 1; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 408; Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 452.

[65:4] Sohar, Genes., 387; Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 451 f.

[65:5] Schabbath, 151, 2.

[65:6] Pesachim, 112, 1; Avoda Sarah, 12, 2; Eisenmenger; ib., i., p. 426 f. ii., p. 452.

[65:7] Chagigah, 3, 2; Trumoth, 40, 2; Bava Bathra, 100, 2; Bab. Sanhedrin, 65, 2; Lightfoot, ib., xi., pp. 160, 170, xii., pp. 134, 349; Gfrörer ib., i., p. 408.

[65:8] Bab. Schabbah, 65, 2; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 170; xii., p. 134 f.

[65:9] Bab. Schabbath, 67, 1; Bab. Beracoth, 62, 1; Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 449 f. Schwab, Traite des Berakhoth, p. 495 f.

[65:10] Bab. Beracoth, 3, 1; 3:2; Targ. Hieros. Deut. 30:10; Schwab, ib., p. 227.

[65:11] Matt. 8:28, 12:43; Mark 5:3, 5; Luke 8:27, 29, 11:24 f.

[65:12] Vajicra Rabba, §24; Lightfoot, ib., xii., p. 282. f.

[66:1] John 5:3-4. The authenticity is fully discussed in S. R., Complete Ed., vol ii., p. 420 f.

[66:2] Bab. Taanith, 20, 2; Sohar, Bereschith; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 215.

[66:3] Gittin, 68, 1.

[66:4] Lightfoot, ib., xii., p. iii.

[66:5] Gittin, 68, 1; Eisenmenger, ib., i., p. 351. Schoettgen, ib., p. 1233, § iv. Schoettgen gives minute details from the Talmud, etc., regarding the Academia Celestis, its constitution, and the questions discussed in it, pp. 1230-1236. The representation of Satan in the book of Job will not be forgotten.

[66:6] Luke 8:2; cf. Mark 16:9.

[66:7] Luke 8:30 ff. The name Legion does not only express a great number, but to the word was attached the idea of an unclean company, for a Legion passing from place to place and entering a house rendered it "unclean." The reason was: "For there is no legion which hath not some carcaphelion" (karakephalê); that is to say, the skin of the head pulled off from a dead person and used for enchantments. (Cf. Chollin, 1231; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 394.)

[66:8] Luke 8:33.

[67:1] Bab. Joma, 83, 2; Bab. Gittin, 67, 2; Hieros. Schabbath, 14, 3; Mischna, Gittin, vii. 1; Gemara, 67, 2; Sohar, Genes., 42; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 411 f. Eisenmenger, ib., ii., p. 454; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 237 f., xii., p. 134 f. Shibta, whom we have already met with, was said to take hold of the necks of infants, and to dry up and contract their nerves. Aruch, in Shibta; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 237.

[67:2] Luke 13:11 ff.; cf. Mark 9:25; Matt. 12:22, 9:32; Luke 11:14.

[67:3] Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 208.

[67:4] Horae Hebr. et Talm., p. 474; cf. Edzard, Avoda Sarah, ii., pp. 311-356; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 143.

[67:5] Bab. Beracoth, 56 ff.; Schwab, Traité des Berakhoth, p. 457 ff.

[67:6] Bab. Schabbath, ii, i; Beracoth, 14, 1; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 299 f., p. 163.

[67:7] Bab. Beracoth, 55, 2, 56, 1; Maasar Sheni, 52, 23 3; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 300; Schwab, Traité des Berakhoth, p. 457 ff.

[68:1] See, for instance, Bab. Berakhoth, 51, 1; Schwab, Traité des Berakhoth, p. 433 f.

[68:2] Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 301 f.

[68:3] See references, Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 301; Bab. Beracoth, 57, 2, etc.; Schwab, ib., p. 302, ib., 456 f., etc., etc.

[68:4] Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 301.

[68:5] Hieros. Schab., 14, 3; Sanhedr., 18, 3; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 301 f.

[68:6] Hieros. Sanhedr., 23, 3; Bab. Sanhedr., 44, 2; Bab. Beracoth, 53, 1; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 302; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 413; Schwab, ib., p. 444.

[68:7] Matt. 12:27; cf. Luke 11:19, 9:49; Mark 9:38; Acts 19:13 ff.

[68:8] Gittin, 68, 1, 2; Succah, 53, 1; Eisenmenger, ib., i., pp. 355, 358; ii., pp. 416, 440; Lightfoot, ib., xii., p. 428.

[69:1] Eisenmenger, ib, i., p. 361 f.

[69:2] Gittin, 68, 1, 2; Sotah, 48, 2; Eisenmenger, ib., i., p. 350 ff.; Gfrörer, ib., i., p. 414 f.; Buxtorf, Lexic. Talmud., p. 2455. Moses is also said to have made use of Schamir. Fabricius, Cod. Vet. Test., ii., p. 119.

[69:3] Gloss on Middoth, cap. 5, hal. 3; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 301.

[69:4] Bava Mezia, 59, 1, 2; Bab. Beracoth, 33, 34, 54, 1; Hieros. Sanhedr., 25, 4; Bab. Taanith, 24; Juchas, 20, 1; 56, 2; Lightfoot, ib., xi., p. 301 f.; Eisenmenger, ib., i., 14 f.; Schwab, ib., p. 358 ff,. p. 448 f.

[69:5] Antiq., 8:2, §5.

[70:1] Dial. c. Tryph., 85; cf. Apol., 2:6; Acts 19:13 ff.

[70:2] De Bello Jud., 8:6, §3.

[70:3] Ib., 7:6, § 3.

[71:1] De Bello Jud., 6:5, §3.

[71:2] Apol., 2:5; cf. Apol., i., 5, 14.

[71:3] Apol., 1:18.

[71:4] Dial. c. Tryph., 105.

[71:5] Dial., 57, cf. 131.

[71:6] Stromata, 7:1, §3.

[71:7] Strom., 7:2, §5.

[71:8] Strom., 7:2, §6; 6:17, §157.

[71:9] Strom., 6:17, §61.

[71:10] Strom., 6:3, 30

[71:11] Strom., 7:2, §6.

[71:12] Strom., 7:17, §159.

[72:1] Ad Autolycum, 2:8. Theophilus sees the punishment of the serpent in the repulsive way in which he crawls on his belly and eats the dust. This and the pains of women in childbirth are proofs of the truth of the account of the fall in Genesis. Ad Autol. 2:23.

[72:2] Legatio pro Christ., 10; Cf. 24.

[72:3] Legatio pro Christ., 14.

[72:4] It is said in the Clementine Recognitions that the giants were born in the ninth generation of the human race, and that their bones are still preserved in some places; 1:29. Cf. Clement. Hom. 8:15.

[72:5] Legatio pro Christ., 25.

[72:6] Ib., 24, 25.

[72:7] Ib.,26, 27.

[72:8] Orat. Ad Graecos, 12.

[72:9] Ib., 16.

[72:10] Ib., 17.

[73:1] Ib., 18; cf. Tertullian, Apol., §22; Origen, Contra Cels., 8:31 f.

[73:2] Cf. Tertullian, De Spectaculis, §§12, 13; Clem., Recog., 4:19 ff.

[73:3] Cyprian, De Idol. Vanitate, §7; cf. Minitius Felix, Octavius, §27; Tertullian, Apol., 22, Eusebius, Praep. Evang., 7:16.

[74:1] Tertullian, Apol., 22; Cf. 23, ad Scapulam, § 2.

[74:2] Apol., §23.

[74:3] De Idolotria, §9; De Cultu Fem., i §2.

[74:4] De Baptismo, §5.

[74:5] De Cultu Fem., §§2, 10; Cf. Commodianus, Instit. §3; Lactantius, Instil. Div., 2:16; Clem. Hom., 8:14.

[74:6] De Anima, §57.

[74:7] De Spectaculis, §26.

[74:8] Contra Cels., 4:92; Cf. 8:11.

[75:1] Ib., 4:93; cf. 3:29, 35, 36, 5:5; Barnabas, Epist., 10; Clemens Al., Paedag., 2:10.

[75:2] Contra Cels., 7:35, cf. 5, 8:61, cf. 60.

[75:3] Ib., 7:5.

[75:4] Contra Cels., 7:67.

[75:5] Ib., 8:28, 31.

[75:6] Ib., 8:57, 31 f.

[75:7] Ib., 8:30.

[75:8] Ib., 8:31, cf. 57.

[75:9] Hieron., Epist. ad Ephes., 3:6.

[75:10] In Ascens. J.C.

[75:11] Cf. Philo, De Somniis, i., §22.

[76:1] De Principiis, 1:7, §3; cf. Contra Cels., 5:10, 11.

[76:2] Ib., 1:7, §4.

[76:3] Ib., 1:7, §5; cf. 3:5, §4. Origen applies to sun, moon, and stars the wish of Paul (Phil. i. 23). Tatian likewise ascribes spirituality to stars, plants, and waters; but, although one and the same with the soul in angels and animals, there are certain differences. Orat. ad Graecos, 12; cf. Eusebius, Praep. Evang., 7:15.

[76:4] Contra Cels., 5:11.

[76:5] De Principiis, 1:8, §1, cf. §4; Contra Cels., 5:4, 5. Cf. Hermas, Pastor, ii., Mand. vi., §§1, 2; Tertullian, De Orat., §12; De Anima, § 37; Clemens Al., Strom., 5:14, §92, 7:13, §81.

[76:6] Hom. 14. in Num., Opp. ii., p. 323.

[77:1] Contra Cels., 8:57, 31.

[77:2] i. Visio, 4:2; in the Sinaitic Codex, the name is Thegri. Cotelerius, in the Greek version, has Agrion.

[77:3] Hieron., in Habacuc, 1:1, 14.

[77:4] Stromata, 6:3, §31

[77:5] Cf. Matt. 8:31 ff.

[77:6] Contra Cels., 8:31.

[77:7] Apolog., §22 f.

[77:8] Summa Theolog., i, quaest., 80. §2.

[77:9] Clem., Recog., 1:45.

[77:10] Ib., 4:25.

[77:11] Ib., 4:26.

[77:12] Ib., 4:27.

[78:1] Ib., 9:12.

[78:2] Ib., 2:42.

[78:3] Clem., Recog., 4:15 ff.

[78:4] Ib., 4:19.

[78:5] Ib., 4:21.

[78:6]Instit. Div., 2:14; cf. Inst. Epit. ad Pentad., 27 f.

[78:7] Ib., 2:15; Cf. 4:27, 5:21; cf. Arnobius, Adv. Gentes, i. 46.

[78:8] Ib., 2:16.

[79:1] Instit. Div., 2:16.

[79:2] Ib., 4:27; cf. Arnobius, Adv. Gentes, 1:46.

[79:3] Praep. Evang. 2 f.

[79:4] H. E. 5:28.

[79:5] De Civitate Dei, 8:22.

[79:6] Cf. Div., 2:14.

[80:1] "Improbos saepe exstitisse mulieribus et earum appetisse ac peregisse concubilum."

[80:2] De Civ. Dei., 15:23. So undeniable was the existence of these evil spirits, Incubi and Succubi, considered, and so real their wicked practices,,that Pope Innocent VIII. denounced them in a Papal Bull in 1484. Burton most seriously believed in them, as he shows in his Anatomy of Melancholy (3:2). Similar demons are frequently mentioned in the Talmudic literature. Cf. Eisenmenger, Entd. Judenthum, i., p. 374; ii., p. 421 ff, 426 ff.

[80:3] Instit Div. 3:24.

[81:1] De Civ. Dei, xvi. 9. The Roman Clement, in an eloquent passage on the harmony of the universe, speaks of "the unsearchable places of abysses and the inexplicable arrangements of the lower world," and of "the ocean, impassable to man, and the worlds beyond it" (Ep. ad Corinth., 20.) Origen refers to this passage in the following terms: "Clement, indeed, a disciple of the Apostles, makes mention also of those whom the Greeks call Antichthones, and of those parts of the orb of the earth to which neither can any of our people approximate, nor can any of those who are there cross over to us, which he called 'worlds,' saying," etc. (De Principiis, 2:3, §6). Such views, however, were general.

[81:2] The Talmud speaks frequently of the Phoenix. It is not subject to the angel of death, but is immortal, because when Eve offered it, together with all other created things, the forbidden fruit to eat, it alone refused. See authorities, Eisenmenger, Entd. Jud., i., p. 37 1, p. 867 ff.

[81:3] Ep. Ad Corinth., 29.

[81:4] De Resurr., §13.

[81:5] 5:7.

[81:6] Contra Cels., 4: 98. The same fable is referred to by Herodotus (2:73), and also by Pliny (Nat. Hist., 10:2).

[81:7] Catech., 18:8.

[82:1] Hosa gar etê zê, tosautas echei trupas. C. 10.

[82:2] c. 10:1 He also says of the weasel: To gar zôon touto tô stomati kuei. Cf. Origen, Contra Cels., 4:93; Clement of Alex. refers to the common belief regarding these animals. 2:10.

[82:3] "Hyena, si observes, sexus annalis est, marem et feminam alternat. Taceo cervum quod et ipse aetatis suae arbiter, serpente pastus, veneno languescit in juventutem" (De Pallio §3).

[82:4] Cf. Tertullian, Ad. Scap. §3; Sozomen, H.E., 8:4, 4:5.

[82:5] De Penitentia, §12. Gregory the Great gives a singular account (Dial. 4:30) which he had heard of a hermit who had seen Theodoric, and one of the Popes, John, in chains, cast into the crater of one of the Lipari volcanoes, which were believed to be entrances into hell.
 


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